Philosophy of Sri Madhvacharya – the Dvaita
Sri Madhvacharya, who lived during 1238-1317 in Karnataka, propounded the philosophy of Realism, the Doctrine of the Two i.e. Dvaita. It accepts two entirely separate substances, the independent reality (God) and the Dependent reality (the Jivas, Nature and other allied categories). Consciousness is always bi-polar. There must be a knower (Jnata) at one end, and an object (Jneya) at other end. The Dvaita is further elaborated through fivefold difference viz. Jiva and Jiva; Isvara and Jiva; Isvara and Jada or inanimate substance; Jiva and Jada: Jada and Jada.
The highlights of the philosophy are as under:
Dvaita doctrine of Madhva has recognized ten ultimate categories as under:
Supreme Being (Brahman):
Jiva (Individual soul):
Prakriti is dependent on Brahman. (As against, Samkhya’s philosophy that Prakriti is absolutely independent entity and philosophy of Advaita that world is only provisional reality which is sublated when the Truth is realized.).
Space and Time:
Both unmodified space and Time are not perceived through any of the sense organs by the Saksi (witness), the intuitive power of the Atman, directly. In deep sleep when all the senses and mind are absolutely at abeyance, the saksi intuits bare ego, bare time and bare bliss. As no sense experience is there, it cannot be an ordinary perception and for that reason, not an inference. The evidence of Saksi alone certifies it. Both time and space are infinite but also infinitely divisible.
Avidya or Ignorance:
The sense of an independent self-centered existence is called Avidya, the Svarupajnana (the ignorance of one’s nature). It is the basic cause of the Jiva’s involvement in the miseries of Samsara consisting in repeated births and deaths. The locus of Avidya is said to in Jiva.
Reference: Bhakti Schools of Vedanta – by Swami Tapasyananda, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai.