In the chapter 12 & 13 in Section 5 of Kailash-saṃhita of Shiva Purana, Shiva informed about the procedure of Sannyasa & renunciation.
Shiva is declared as the purport of the Pranava; from whom this entire universe, beginning with Brahma, Vishnu and Indra is born at the outset with the groups of sense-organs and elements; who is worthy of being meditated upon by those who are desirous of salvation; he who is the cause of welfare; who is in the middle of the firmament; who is omnipresent, whose soul is light, who is in the form of splendour, knowledge and consciousness; whose splendid Shakti is comprehensible only through emotion and who is both Nirguna and Saguna, unsullied and auspicious. Three types of his form—gross, subtle and causal shall be meditated upon by those seeking salvation.
He the ancient lord has Ishana for his coronet; Purusha for his face; Aghora for his heart; Vamadeva for his private parts and Sadya for his foot. He is both Sakala and Niṣkala. The six Shakti, omniscience, etc. constitute his six limbs. He is bedecked on his left by Manonmani, his own Shakti.
The Shruti says that the sages are satisfied by Brahmacharya; the gods by sacrifice; and the Pitrs by progeny. Freed from this threefold debt and entering the Vanaprastha stage the devotee shall bear both pleasure and pain, chillness and heat; shall subjugate the senses, control the diet. He shall practise restraint and other means of Yoga so that the intellect becomes stable and unswerving. He becomes pious and free from activities.
The ascetic shall approach a preceptor who knows the principles of sacred scriptures and has mastered the Vedantic knowledge.
Permitted by the preceptor he shall subsist on milk diet and perform rites for twelve days. On the fourth or the tenth day in the bright lunar fortnight he shall take his early morning bath. With pious mind, he shall perform his routine. He shall invite the preceptor and begin the Nandi Shraddha. Nandi is worshipped to attain happiness joy and content in life. Nandi shraddha are performed with recitation of specific mantras for success of a ceremony. After completing Nandi mukha shraddha, he shall propitiate the leading brahmins. He shall recite Shrirudra, Camaka, and Puruṣa suktas duly. After meditating on Sadashiva, he shall repeat the Japas of the five Brahmans. At the end of the meal, he shall recite Rudra Sukta. He shall ask forgiveness of the brahmins. After food he shall offer water. Washing his feet and performing the Achamana he shall approach the Piṇḍas. Facing the cast, he shall sit silently and perform Praṇayama thrice.
“I shall perform the rite of offering the Piṇḍas as an ancillary to the Nandimukhashraddha.” After deciding thus, he shall draw nine lines from south to north. He shall place twelve Darbhas with their tips to the east over the lines. These are the five places for the gods Daksha and others. In these places the aksata grains and water shall be offered silently. In the other places he shall sprinkle water with the mantra “Atra Pitaraḥ”, and offer the Aksata grains and water for worship. The names of different gods shall be mentioned with the dative case ending. Three Piṇḍas shall be offered to each in the five places. The Piṇḍas shall be given separately along with Akṣatas for the full efficacy of the Pitrs as explained in the Gṛhyasutra.
He shall meditate on lord Sadashiva in the lotus of the heart reciting the verse. By remembering his lotus-like feet he shall give fees to the Brahmins according to his ability. He shall ask forgiveness and bid them farewell. He shall give Piṇḍas to the cows or cast off into running water. After performing “Punyahavacana” he shall take meals with his kinsmen.
After getting up early in the morning next day the devotee shall perform his routine. He shall observe fast, shave hair except in the armpits and the private parts. He shall cut the moustache, the nails and shave his head. He shall take bath and wear a washed and dried cloth. He shall be pure in thought and body. Silently he shall perform Achamana twice and apply ashes duly and perform the Puṇyahavacana. He shall make gift to brahmins especially to devotees and to Shiva in the form of preceptor. He shall prostrate before him. He shall take the loin-cloth, its string, staff and the articles for homa—sacrificial twigs etc. He shall go to sea-shore or a mountain or a river-bank or a Shiva temple or a forest or a cow pen. He shall sit on a good place and perform Acamana. He shall make his mind pure like a flower bunch. He shall repeat Vedic mantras along with Oṃ and recite “Namo Brahmaṇe” etc. thrice. Then he shall repeat the mantra “Agnimile purohitam”, perform the great rite and repeat. “Agnirvai” “Iṣe tvorje tvā”, then repeat the Mantras” Agna ayahi vitaye”, “shanno devirabhiṣṭaye” along with Ma, Ya, Ra, Sa, Ta, Ja, Bha, Na, La, and Ga. This shall continue for five years. This is the tradition. Then he shall repeat the text of grammar, Mimaṃsa and Vedanta. He shall repeat the names of the gods as well. He shall perform the Japa of Brahma, Indra, Sun, moon, Prajapati Jnanatman and Paramatman with Pranavain the beginning, namaḥ in the end using the dative case. He shall take some flour of fried grain, cat it with Praṇava, perform Acamana twice, wash his hands, repeat the mantras mentioned hereafter. He shall repeat the names of Atman, Antaratman, Jnanatman beginning with Pranavaand ending with Namaḥ. After repeating the mantra of Atman, he shall repeat the mantra of Prajapati. He shall then perform the Japa ending with Svaha. Repeating Pranavahe shall take in milk, curd and ghee separately thrice and perform Acamana twice. With the mind steady he shall sit firmly facing the east and perform pranayama thrice in accordance with the rules.
The Procedure of Renunciation:
Then at midday he shall take bath. With the mind fully controlled he shall gather materials for worship such as fragrant flowers, Akṣatas etc. With the mantra, “Gaṇanam tva” he shall as enjoined invoke lord Gaṇapati worshipped by the gods. He shall worship him in the south-west. He shall worship him at dusk and offer Naivedya. After propitiating and bowing to him he shall pray for warding off evil.
After offering the Purnahuti with the three Ṛks “Bhuh Svaha and concluding the rites he shall repeat Gayatri assiduously till late in the afternoon. He shall perform the evening prayers after bath and the sacrificial rites and inform his preceptor accordingly.
After offering the Caru therein e shall perform Homa with different faggots of sticks, cooked rice and ghee repeating Rudrasukta. He shall conceive Lord Shiva in the fire along with Amba and the five Brahmans—Sadyojata etc. He shall remember Gauri and perform homa with the mantra “Gaurirmimaya etc. He shall perform sacrifice, repeat the mantra “Agnaye sviṣṭakṛṭe svaha” and then show mystic gestures. Being of steady mind he shall sit on the seat of cloth, deerskin or Darbha grass to the north of the fire and perform the Gayatri japa silently till the brahma muhurta.
He shall then take bath. He shall perform the Japa of the Vyahṛtis, Rudra Sukta and the five Brahmans. He shall fix his mind in the lotus-feet of Shiva. He shall perform the Japa of Prajapati, Indra, Vishvedevas and Brahma also, with dative case-endings. Pranavaand other mantras shall be repeated ending with Svaha. He shall perform Puṇyahavacana, say Agnye svaha, show mystic gesture in front of the fire. Then he shall repeat Pranaya svaha and offer five Ahutis to Svistakrt fire. He shall repeat Rudrasukta, the five Brahmans, the Caturvyuha mantras, Homa and mystic gestures in accordance with his Vedic branch. The same procedure he shall adopt for the other gods, along with their ancillary rites. After these rites beginning with the fire, the Viraja homa of the Atman shall be performed for the purification of the self in the form of twenty-six principles.
After Svaha” he shall say “Na mama” (not to me). By this, renunciation of motive is indicated. In the mantras “Vividya” “Kaṣṭapota” after the word Vyapakava the word Paramatmane shall be used. The words “Shivajyotis” “Vishvabhuta” and “Ghasanotsuka” shall be mentioned in dative ease. After mentioning the god by name the word Devaya shall be uttered. After “Vishvarupaya” in the mantra “Uttiṣṭhasva"’ the word “Purusaya” shall be uttered and the words “Om Svaha” shall be added. At the end of the word “Lokatraya” the words “Vyapine Paratnatmane Shivayedam Na Mama” shall be added. He shall conclude the rite according to his own branch of the Veda. He shall eat Caru mixed with ghee and then give fee of gold etc. to the priest. Alter the ritualistic dismissal of Brahma he shall perform the morning worship. He shall recite the mantra “Saṃ maṃ sincantu Maruta.” He shall warm his hand over the fire repeating the mantra “Ya te Agne” and superimpose the fire in his own Atman, abode of the universal soul. He shall perform the morning prayers and pay respects to the sun. He shall enter water upto the navel, perform the Japa of the mantras with pleasure, devotion and steadiness. The devotee who had been maintaining sacrificial fires regularly shall perform the Prajapatya rite in the sacrificial fire and give his entire possession as gift.
The devotee shall perform the Japa of Gayatri. Pranava is the initial of all mantras of the Vedas. It expresses Shiva. It is the emperor of all mantras. It is the great Bija, the greatest mantra. After dissolving Gayatri in the Pranava identical with Shiva he shall recite the hymn “ahaṃ vrksasya reriva.” He shall repeat the hymn beginning with “Yaḥ Chandasam Ṛṣabhaḥ” and ending with “gopaya.”
After muttering the Preṣa mantras with attentive mind he shall say “Let all living beings have fearlessness from me, Svaha.” He shall take water in the cupped palms and pour it to the east. He shall uproot the tuft and take out the sacred thread. Taking the two in the cupped palms along with water he shall say Om Bhuḥ “Go thou to the ocean” after uttering Suaha. Along with the water in the palms he shall put the two in the water uttering Presa mantras. After performing Acamana thrice he shall come to the bank and cast off all the clothes. He shall then foot a short distance more than seven paces facing north or the east. Then the preceptor shall ask him to stop saying, “for your stay and activity in the world, O holy one, accept this loin-cloth and staff.” He shall hand them over to him with his own hands.
After giving the loin-cloth with its string, and the ochre-coloured robe he shall ask him to wear them. After performing Acamana twice he shall tell the disciple thus “You are the thunderbolt of Indra.”. After praying and saying “A good companion”, he shall take up the staff. He shall approach the preceptor remembering the lotus-like feet of Śiva and fall at his feet thrice with fully restrained mind.
Before the rites are begun, he should collect cowdung and make them into balls of the size of a myrobalan fruit and dry them in sunshine. The balls shall be placed in the sacrificial fire at the advent of homa. At the conclusion of the homa the ashes shall be collected and preserved.
The preceptor shall take the white ashes of the Viraja fire. Repeating the mantras “Agniriti Bhasma” he shall apply the sacred ashes over the body of the disciple from head to foot. Repeating the five mantras “Ishana” Tryayuṣa” “Tryambakam Yajamahe he shall apply the Tripundra marks too beginning with head. Then the disciple shall meditate devotedly on Shiva, the consort of Uma in the lotus of his heart. Putting his hand on the head of the disciple the preceptor shall utter the Pranava thrice into the right ear of the disciple along with the names of the sage etc.
The excellent preceptor shall be sympathetic and explain Pranava with the knowledge of the six-fold topics. The disciple shall make obeisance to the preceptor by prostrating twelve times. He shall remain subservient to him always. He shall not do anything else. The preceptor shall make the disciple perform all the rites in the morning up to the Japa including the practice of hearing etc. The disciple shall perform the worship in the maṇḍala Kailasaprastara as enjoined by Shiva. If he cannot worship the deity worshipped by his preceptor, he shall take up Shivalinga of crystal along with the pedestal. The disciple shall take vow in the presence of the preceptor which he shall repeat thrice with a steady mind - “I shall rather cast life and cut off my head than take meals without worshipping Śiva.”
Thus, the disciple shall worship Lord Shiva every day with devoted and diligent mind, following the path of five Avaraṇas.
Punya and Paap are the seeds of future pleasure and pain, the former, which sows merits, exhausts itself only through pleasure and the latter, which sows demerits, exhausts itself only through pain; but liberation from rebirth is the end of all karmic debts consisting of and signified by these two dynamics.
In the chapter 5 & 6 in Section 5 of Uma-saṃhita of Shiva Purana and in discourse 11, section – 6 of Manu Smriti, different types of sins are enumerated.
There are twelve types of Maha-Paap:
The following six are the great sins attended with endless evil results, viz: —censure of Shiva, censure of the preceptor, censure of Shiva’s perfect knowledge, misappropriation of the wealth of the lord, destruction of the wealth of brahmins and the foolish stealing of the sacred text of Shiva’s perfect knowledge.
Those who do not take delight on seeing a well-arranged worship of Shiva, who do not bow to or eulogise it on seeing his phallic image that is worshipped, those who do not scrub, clean and sanctify the spot of worship during festival days; those who do not duly cooperate with the preceptor in their sacred rites; those who misbehave as they please, play about mischievously and do not render service in front of Shiva or in the presence of the preceptor; those who eschew Parvati course of conduct and discipline, those who hate Shiva’s devotees; those who begin to study or write about Shiva’s knowledge without worshipping; those who give without justice or justification; those who listen or recite indiscriminately; those who sport about covetously; those who pursue false knowledge or do not have proper rules and regulations; those who lie down and sleep in dirty uncleaned spots; he who abuses Śiva’s story and knowledge and begins to expatiate on other things; he who does not speak the truth; he who does not make gifts; he who is bodily impure and begins to explain or listen to Shiva’s story in an unclean place; he who begins to listen without worshipping the preceptor; he who does not render service to him or pay heed to his behests with devotion; he who does not support the preceptor’s statement; he who retorts to his preceptor; he who conveniently ignores the most difficult task of his preceptor; he who deserts his preceptor when he is in distress, or when he is unable to maintain the disciple, or when he has gone abroad or when he is attacked by enemies; he who treats with contempt the teacher of virtuous activities and ability to discourse; he who disrespects the teacher’s wife, son or friends.
The murderer of a brahmin, the addict to wine, the habitual thief, the defiler of the preceptor’s bed and he who associates with these is the great sinner fifth in all.
Paap listed in Manu Smriti -
In the chapters 7 to 10 in Section 5 of Uma-saṃhita of Shiva Purana, Hell, and mode of sufferings in the Hell are narrated.
Hell, or Yamaloka or Naraka -
As a result of the four kinds of sins, all living beings go to Yamaloka which is about over four lakh KM. Men who have performed auspicious rites who are of gentle minds, endowed with the quality of compassion, go to Yama’s abode through the gentle entrance at the East. Sinners, habitually performing sinful actions and devoid of charitable nature, pass through the terrible path and enter Yama’s abode by the southern gate.
The sinners are tortured and harassed on the way. They are lonely, devoid of friends and relatives. They are dependent on others. They bewail their evil actions. They cry again and again.
Those who had not made any charitable gifts in the world feel thirsty along this path and vainly beg for water, feeling hungry they beg for food; oppressed by sunshine they beg for shade and distressed with dullness they request for fire. They vainly beg for happiness. But those who had made charitable gifts in the world have all the food and drink necessary for this journey and go ahead to Yama’s abode happily. Having thus traversed the path they finally reach the city of the dead with great hardship. They are then ushered into the presence of Yama by the emissaries after due announcement.
Yama welcomes with pleasure and due honour, all those who had performed auspicious rites in this world. After enjoying pleasures there, in the end when the merit is exhausted return to this place for reaping the fruit of what little evil you may have committed.” Men who have been virtuous are treated as friends by Yama. They see Yama with a gentle face.
Men who have been guilty of cruelties sec him in a terrible form. The attendants of Yama are innumerable. They are great heroes. They have complexions like the black collyrium. They appear terrifying with weapons lifted up. The sinners see Yama terrific to behold, surrounded by his attendants and they see Citragupta too equally terrible. Yama rebukes and reproaches the sinners. Lord Citragupta enlightens them with statements on virtue.
Description of the Hell (naraka) -
The sinners are stealers of other man’s riches, outragers of the modesty of other’s wives, arrogant of comeliness and might etc. Dharmaraja proclaims their evil actions and advises Mahacanda to purify them gradually in the fires of hell (naraka). At the end of the seventh nether-world Tala, there are twenty-eight Narakakotis situated in terrible darkness. These are Ghora, Sughora, Atighora, Mahaghora, Ghorarupa, Talatala, Bhayanaka, Kalaratri, Bhayotkaṭa, Canda, Mahacanda, Candakolahala, Pracaṇḍa, Caṇḍanayika, Padma, Padmāvatī, Bhita, Bhima, Bhisananayika, Vajra, Trikoṇa, Pancakoṇa, Sudirgha, Akhilartida, Sama, Bhimabala, Atyugra and Diptapraya. Thus, the cells of Naraka have been mentioned to you by their names. Each of these is meant for the torture for a particular sin. Thus, the twenty-eight cells for twenty-eight types of sins.
Pangs of hell -
Just as metals are melted in fire to remove their impurities so also sinners are put in hells in order to remove their sins. Here the tortures to the body are very severe. Men thus go from one hell to another and are tortured in all the hells.
The mode of sufferings in the Hell -
Tortures are inflicted on all the organs of the body with which the acts of sin had been committed. As a result of the previous tortures their minds and all sense-organs are put to great misery. Those who, despite being rich do not make monetary gifts due to greed, and those who dishonour guests visiting their houses at the proper time, commit sins and fall into dirty hell.
Those who offer Bali to crow & dogs with Shiva’s mantras, and performing Homa duly, do not face Yama. They go straight to heaven. Hence this oblation shall be offered daily. He who serves the cow with faith and reverence deserves to maintain the sacrificial fires. He who forsakes it is drowned in the hell Tamisra. Hence after offering Bali to these at the door, the householder shall meditate for a short while. One shall feed the hungry guest staying in the same village with auspicious food, in accordance with his ability and with the same dishes as he partakes of himself. If a guest turns back from a house disappointed, he takes away all the merits of the householder and leaves his own sins behind. The fruit of good actions is immaterial because it is the sin that is prominent. His pleasure is insignificant since he has to undergo manifold suffering due to his bad deeds. He is put to misery and distress.