It is said: “All problems are illusions of the mind.” Thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, emotions, desires, impulses, reasonings, motivations and intentions are generated out of mind. Intensity of emotional reactions or negative impulsive behaviour and its longevity can impair or ruin your career, long-term relationship especially with your loved ones like, spouse, children, parents, in-laws, very close friends, etc., business or profession or whatever.
Intensions, emotions, desires and impulses are deep rooted into past. Past connotes “embedded impressions” of past life i.e., actions done in previous birth or prior to present day in current life. The emotions of shame, guilt, sadness, and anger are related to past wounds that have not been more fully addressed. Some of us, driven by anxiety and fear, are preoccupied with the future, but the combination of our nature and nurture may make us vulnerable to envision our future constricted by our past.
A focused mind, not wandering into the past and future, is a peaceful, contented mind. Some specific techniques can be applied to harness our thoughts?
Genesis of Tendencies & Impulses:
William Shakespeare quoted in Twelfth Night: “Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.” The fact is greatly debated by scientists and psychologists. It is discovered that partly genetic structure may be responsible for the tendencies.
The fact was mentioned by the ancient Hindu scientists (rishis) in Vedas, the oldest literature of world. To quote the references,
Means: The soul after death, according to its actions and nature, becomes violent and calm; fearful and fearless; ignorant and enlightened; roaring and quiet; patient or impatient passionate and ascetic; disruptive and concentrative; prey to bewilderment.
Means: Mental tendencies, character, potentials etc. are formed by the virtuous and vicious karmas done in past.
Remedies – as per psychologists:
समं कायशिरोग्रीवं धारयन्नचलं स्थिरः। संप्रेक्ष्य नासिकाग्रं स्वं दिशश्चानवलोकयन्।।6.13।।
प्रशान्तात्मा विगतभीर्ब्रह्मचारिव्रते स्थितः। मनः संयम्य मच्चित्तो युक्त आसीत मत्परः।।6.14।। युञ्जन्नेवं सदाऽऽत्मानं योगी नियतमानसः। शान्तिं निर्वाणपरमां मत्संस्थामधिगच्छति।।6.15।।
He should hold the body, head and neck straight and steady, remaining firm and fixing the gaze on the tip of his nose, without looking in other directions (13). He should be serene minded, firm in the pledge of complete chastity and fearless, keeping himself perfectly calm and with the mind held in restraint and fixed on Me (Brahman/Shree Krishna), the vigilant Yogi should sit absorbed in Me (Brahman/Shree Krishna) (14). Thus, constantly applying his mind to Me (Brahman/Shree Krishna), the Yogi of disciplined mind, attains everlasting peace and supreme Bliss (15).
Remedies – Impulse Control Mechanism: Scientific Approach:
Shri Shrikant M Ambike has very lucidly explained the impulse control mechanism (https://www.shrikantmambike.com/emotional-intelligence-the-impulse-control-wheel/) as under:
Here again, impulse control success will depend on how much you value your relationships with others. It has to take precedence over your overtly inflated egos, false sense of pride, arrogance, rudeness, conceitedness and being one up over the other attitude. Any relationship has to be a give and take.
Charles Darwin wrote: It’s not the strongest of the species nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is most adaptable to change. How to be more adaptable while maintaining your impulses:
Satchitananda (Sanskrit: सच्चिदानन्द), a compound word of Sat (Existence), Chit (Consciousness), and Ananda (Bliss), is a description of the subjective experience of Brahman. This sublimely blissful experience of the boundless, pure consciousness is a glimpse of ultimate reality.
Sat, Chit and Ananda are not three distinct entities. They are not different from one another. They are coeval and coexistent with Atman. Just as water, Jal & Pani and light, heat and luminosity signify one and the same thing, so also Sat-Chit-Ananda signifies the one Atman.
What is Sat, Chit and Ananda:
Where Satchitananda explained:
In Vedas & Upanishads:
Sat or Truth:
One of the most important verses of the Rig Veda (1.164.46) is:
The Reality (Truth) is ONE: the wise call It by various names. Ekam sat vipra bahudha vadanti.
Ananda or Bliss:
In “Yoga and the Spiritual Life” Sri Chinmoynanada has stated - “To be sure, the Kingdom of Heaven is more than just a mere plane, like other planes. It is a plane of divine Consciousness. It is a state of Realisation. It embodies Sat-Chit-Ananda. Sat is divine Existence, Chit is divine Consciousness, Ananda is divine Bliss. When we go deep within, we feel these three together, and when we acquire the inner vision to perceive them all at once, we live verily in the Kingdom of Heaven. Otherwise, Existence is at one place, Consciousness is somewhere else and Bliss is nowhere near the other two. When we see and feel Existence-Consciousness-Bliss on the self-same plane, each complementing and fulfilling the others, we can say that we live in the Kingdom of Heaven. Yes, the Kingdom of Heaven is within us. Not only can we feel it, but without the least possible doubt, we can become it.”
In Sri Aurobindo's evolutionary vision of the soul and the Universe, of which sachidananda is the principal term, even though the soul is incarnate in maya and subject to space, matter and time, it maintains an ongoing and eternal oneness with Saccidananda or divinity. This incarnating aspect or dimension of the human being, the spirit-soul, or the 'psychic being' or chaitya purusha, is the staple essence that reincarnates from life to life. This essence is of the energetic quality of sachidananda.
Aurobindo holds that there exists a supreme power, the 'Supermind', which is the first emanation from sachidananda and can be brought into play through the practice of yoga to yoke life, mind and matter with sublime states of consciousness, being, delight and power and thereby manifest more of our inherent divinity.
Where Satchitananda resides:
Consciousness is multi-layered in human beings, which has potential to move upward. These layers are called in Hindu philosophy (Taittiriya Upanishad) as Pancha Kosha - starting from lowest, annamaya, pranamaya, manomaya, vijaynamaya and ananadamaya. It depends on the evolutionary stage of the person, he or she enjoys living in that particular level or realm. Satchitananda is highest plane.
The trained mind can influence the entire physical body system to function well and conserve energy. The trained mind increases concentration. The purified mind overcomes selfishness and ego, increases inner strength and brings inner peace. We can purify the Manomaya kosha through meditation, karma yoga (selfless service and charity work), bhakti yoga (prayer), knowledge (studying the scriptures), and Yama and Niyamas (the yogic moral ethics towards the society and self-discipline). The state of the manomay kosh is affected by both what we eat (annamaya kosha) and our energy level (pranamaya kosha) too.
The person residing in this layer has thoughts and desires which identify with form and name, position and qualities. He is emotional in nature. This person lacks the cognitive abilities of reasoning and is void of any discrimination but may have keen appreciation for fine arts, music and dance and drama.
The person residing in Vigyanamaya Kosha is knowledgeable and wise. Loves literature, creative and are good orators. This fourth sheath is the wisdom that lies beneath the processing, thinking aspect of the mind. He knows, decides, judges, and discriminates between the information he processes and is innovative. Discovery, research and management are the areas where these people are involved in. Persons experiencing Anandamaya Kosha are stable in behaviour and firm in decision, are happy in every state of life and appreciate higher order of things and thinking like nature, prayers, meditation connection with God etc. They are self-realized persons.
In Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, Bhagwan Sri Krishna has explained the means to reach Satchitananda. Self-surrender (Smarpan) to almighty is only means to reach Satchitananda. He says:
Surrender literally means to stop fighting. Stop fighting with yourself. Stop fighting the universe and the natural flow of things. Stop resisting and pushing against reality. “I surrender” means total surrender. Surrendering of once attachment to its possession, post, pride and place; preferences-priorities; liking-disliking; pleasure-pain etc. Surrender is ultimate means to get success in apara prakriti (external or material world) as well as para prakriti (inner or spiritual life). In this material world, surrender before boss, surrender before mighty…….is mantra for getting the desired results.
The ultimate aim of all religions is “Surrender of ego”. The different religions have different rituals which are for spiritual upliftment and to reduce ego. Rituals symbolizes lower form of surrender – temporary surrender of possessions, time, actions etc. Higher form of surrender is attainment of spiritual upliftment by complete & permanent self-surrender (body, mind and ego).
What is Surrender:
The surrender does not mean leaving the rational decisions, inactions or laziness, not being emotional, not taking resolves from will power etc. It is rather perfecting the decision-making, to be intensely emotional, taking strong resolution and working hard. The process invites the purifying the mind, intellect, chit and ego. It will require to dropping the burdens of past sins, not taking selfish decisions, not doing selfish actions, to be fearless of outcomes, etc.
Total Surrender can be to any deity, Guru, Parents, work-in-hand, for personal enquiry or to Nirankar Brahman. In Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, Bhakti yoga, Karma yoga, Jnana yoga and Raja Yoga are the different paths to attain salvation. All the four paths mandate total surrender which can be to any personal deity or if Guru or parents attain that stature; or when work become worship without selfish motives; or making intense enquiry forgetting everything else; or in the Asamprajaatah (seedless) Samadhi wherein all desires, ignorance, afflictions, sufferings, impressions etc. retire. Saint Kabir said –
“जब मैं था तब हरी नहीं, अब हरी है मैं नाही । सब अँधियारा मिट गया, दीपक देखा माही । “
Means: When I was immersed in my ego – I could not see the God – but when the guru illuminated the lamp of knowledge within me, all the darkness of ignorance disappeared – the light of knowledge kept the ego going and in the light of knowledge I found the God.
Importance of Surrender in Hinduism:
In Shree Bhagavad Gita, Bhagwan Shree Krishna said Arjuna,
Processes of surrender:
In Hinduism, there are five methods for achieving the self-surrender which are mentioned as under:
Mind is the gatekeeper of inner subjective world which transact with outer world through sense organs. All the sensory perceptions or experiences are stored in mind. Faculties like thought, imagination, memory, will etc. are responsible for various mental phenomena, like perception, pain-pleasure, belief, desire, intention, and emotion. The transactional mind acts as a smokescreen that prevents us from seeing within ourselves. The pure awareness or consciousness is in fact separated from body-mind. If we compare electricity and electrical instrument, electricity is the pure awareness and mind is electrical instrument. But activities of mind create false ego. This false ego separates us from pure consciousness and bifurcates the inner being. One suffers intensely due to the burns from the bogus bifurcation in the inner being.
The sense organs of the body generate the mind. The sense organs send sensory perceptions in mind and create sensuality i.e., stimulation for desire to enjoy. Thoughts in mind analyse & classify sensations into pleasant and unpleasant and that is the beginning of sensuality. This generates cravings for the repetition of the pleasant and for riddance from unpleasant. So, the root cause of our sorrow and sufferings is the separation of sensations. Mind casts a shadow on the understanding of the eternal reality. Eternal reality can be discovered only when the consciousness is free from illusion.
Human mind remains dormant due to the dominant activity of the separative “I”. chittavrithi separates from Chaitanya. Surrendering of “I” is bliss and silence.
The mind dwells in duality or opposites – pleasure or pain, attachment or aversion, fear or fearlessness, cowardice or courage, anger or amicability, victory or defeat etc. The “Intelligence”, the Chaitanya is not corrupted by choices, by likes-dislikes, preference-aversion, justification-condemnation.
In chapter 3 of Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, Shree Krishna says, “the person in material consciousness is convinced by false ego that he is the doer of everything. He does not know that the mechanism of the body is produced by material nature, which works under the supervision of the Pure or Supreme consciousness.”
Quantum physics says that in the subatomic universe of quarks, objects exist in the quantum state of non-separateness. The objects continue to be connected. This connectedness remains unaffected by distance and time! The connecting force does not move through space despite a mysterious movement par excellence. ‘Close’ and ‘far’ are the same in this quantum state where ‘time’ and ‘space’ lose the conventional meaning as they become inseparable! Quantum physics has thus hit the nature of division-less, time-less Divinity!
Bhagavat Gita (vii 24-26) has also said: - Ground Human Awareness is absolutely free from division in time and space.
Mind as cause of Duality:
Mind has five constituents viz. evidence, beliefs, choices, inertness and memory. These constituents are responsible for suffering and non-suffering.
Chief contents of mind are craving, fear, attachment, dependency and greed. Greedy persons are fearful.
End of Dualism:
The refusal to be involved with attraction and aversion, is detachment (Vairagya). Detachment comes through having complete attention. This is the result of aloofness from sense objects i.e., sensory perceptions are not converted into sensuality by classification as pleasant or unpleasant.
When the sense organs function in their natural state without inference of thoughts, then sensuality is totally wiped out and equanimity or even mindedness takes place. In the state of equanimity, the person does not feel opposites – pleasure or pain, attachment or aversion, fear or fearlessness, cowardice or courage, anger or amicability, victory or defeat etc. This leads to no-mind state.
When the activities of the mind are dormant, the divinity reveals its dominance. One is released from the dualities of suffering and satisfaction, of the fences and freedom, of grief and gratification, even of the life and life-less-ness.
Three-dimensional attitude to end duality:
Kriya Yoga to end duality:
When we are caught in our unnatural state of the “I-ness” (Chittavrithi), we function in the dimension of opposites, constantly struggling to become something other than our being. We desperately seek ‘what should be’, refusing to see “what is”.
Humility means emptiness without a trace of borrowed knowledge or the conditioned reflexes as experience. It is the complete abnegation of all self-centred thought and ideations.
Thinking is wanting. When there is no want, there is no thought and thus just silence.
Seeing all these outward things without condemnation or appreciation, you can ride on the tide of inner awareness in whole-ness generating intense inward silence.
Comparison breeds animosity and subtle hatred, conflict, inner outer, is the ground for violence.
The enquiry and exploration into this “I-ness”, the “me-ness” the “ego-ness”, - that is called Swadhyaya! That is the beginning of kriya yoga. Lessening the activity of the “I” is emergence of Intelligence. Kriya practices, Tapas is very subtle, but very effective. In due course, when the Tapas works Understanding happens. Its main purpose is to release the body from the stranglehold of the mind.
Kriya practices is meant to work through the body on the mind silencing its activities. They transform the Gunas. They are a great cleansing process that helps to make the body available to the chance of penetration of Intelligence.
Kriya practice helps to maintain this fine balancing act between thought and no-thought. Kriya yoga is the science of inner being. Kriya yoga is a journey towards no-mind. Kriya yoga blasts the duality in the life developed by the ego centre. It liberates the yogi from the possessiveness, accumulative and acquisitive urges. Possessiveness is not only of materialism but also of guru, an ideal, human being etc. But kriya yoga needs deep understanding, tremendous courage and Himalayan patience. Kriya makes person empty drum that gives the right tone, not the packed drum of borrowed ideas which makes a dreadful noise.
Do not renounce the world, but just renounce the ‘me’! But it is most difficult to be simple! Dissolution of separative consciousness in the unitary awareness is kriya.
Kriya yoga is stepping out of the world of time and mind and beginning to live the state of timelessness and eternity. Kriya yoga requires abandoning rituals, psychological registrations, pride, envy, comparison, come to emptiness, to existence, to eternal joy. Kriya yoga is not lure for more. No more running or rat race for power, reputation, delusion, experience, attachment, possessions, ego-gratification and stupid pleasure movement.
By practising Kriya yoga, mind exists like honey, not like water. Honey, if disturbed, quickly returns to immobility; whereas water goes into turmoil by disturbance. Kriya yogi does not resist thoughts, but just remain disinterested in perpetuation of thoughts. In natural state, everything appears and disappears in rhythm. In kriya yoga all desires come to end, even desirelessness ceases to be an object for desire.
Kriyas are not physical fitness program, rather it is simple practices to release the body from the stranglehold of the mental pollutions and to generate an energy of equanimity. If kriyas are done with patience and understanding without getting into the activity of the “I”, the blasting is not far off. Death of “I” that Kriya brings about, is immortality.
Time is the enemy in the inner dimension of consciousness which prevents fusion of thinker and thought.
Gunas are the natural traits and tendencies of the human mind. They are present at birth and later modified marginally. Kriya process which consists of knowing the activities of “I”, allowing the body to function naturally and blasting into the state of equanimity transforms the gunas.
Spiritual experiences are just conditioned reflexes from the belief – systems, knowledge, ideas, imaginations borrowed from dream-merchants of the spiritual market. All the subtle feelings in the spine, buzzing or tickling of energy at the chakras, sounds and other phenomena must be choicelessly ignored for the blissful revelation of the innocence, intelligence, Chaitanya-Nath!
Freedom is the natural state in meditation wherein the contents of the consciousness such as tradition, anxiety, name, position, and attachment, and voluntarily. Freedom lies beyond the field of separative consciousness which comprises fragmentations only.
Discipline comes from constant watching of ‘what is’ which is the false inner division. All disorders emanate from the endless pursuit of ‘what should be’. Coercive discipline is fake order and thus it is still disorder.
In Kriya Yoga, WATCH is the key –
Bhakti to end duality:
Vibhakta means divided. Bhakta means not divided or whole or not fragmented. Bhakti is the virtue of Samarpan (surrender) and Samajh (understanding) and Saha-anubhuti (sharing the divine perception).
Reference: Kriya Yoga by Shibendu Lahiri
Ego is self or “I-ness” Everyone has an ego, whether big or small. In Hinduism, Ahamkara (अहंकार) is a Sanskrit term that is related to the ego. Egoism is identifying with or attachment to one's ego. It is a crystallization of pre-existing thoughts and desires resulting into shadow self, which is subject to ignorance, duality and illusion (maya) that veils the true Self and lets the ego-sense take charge of the mind and body and act as if it is the real Self. Ego will significantly impact our relationships with one another and the outside world. It also affects our ability to be persuasive and understood.
Remember that the ego is mischievous, wicked and vulgar. Its voice is the noise of the world. Let us put out the noise of the ego to hear the voice of the divine. The elimination of egoism is the sole condition of self-realization. One’s individual ego, pre-conceived notions, pet ideas, prejudices and selfish interests should be given up. All these stands in the way of spiritual progress.
As per modern psychology, ego comprises the executive functions of personality by serving as the integrator of the outer and inner worlds as well as of the id and the superego. Freud conceptualised ego structure as id, ego and superego. The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. Ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The superego begins to emerge at around age five. The superego tries to perfect and civilize our behaviour. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. However, id, the ego, and the superego are not three separate entities.
There is not much inputs about “ego” in modern psychology. But ancient Hindu rishis have deeply probed about it. As per Hinduism, “ego” has been elaborated as below:
What is Ego:
Ahamkara (Ego) identifies the atman (soul, self, jivatma) with the physical body. Ego is not mere self-pride or arrogance, except in a very narrow sense. In a wider sense, it is the very feeling of separation that makes one feel distinct and different from the rest of the creation and the Creator.
How ego functions:
How to overcome ego:
The various Hindu scriptures have the dynamics of ego and actions in great details. I am discussing here only a few to describe -
जब मैं था तब हरि नहीं अब हरि है मैं नाहीं । प्रेम गली अति सांकरी जामें दो न समाहीं ॥
अर्थ: जब तक मन में अहंकार था तब तक ईश्वर का साक्षात्कार न हुआ. जब अहम समाप्त हुआ तभी प्रभु मिले. जब ईश्वर का साक्षात्कार हुआ – तब अहम स्वतः नष्ट हो गया. ईश्वर की सत्ता का बोध तभी हुआ जब अहंकार गया. प्रेम में द्वैत भाव नहीं हो सकता – प्रेम की संकरी – पतली गली में एक ही समा सकता है – अहम या परम ! परम की प्राप्ति के लिए अहम का विसर्जन आवश्यक है.
According to Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, conquest of the self is therefore very important for peace of mind and union with God. He who conquers his self is in the company of the Supreme. He remains stable and serene in cold or heat, sorrow or happiness, respect or disrespect (6.7). Giving up all desires, without the awareness of any need, sense of ownership and egoism, he attains peace (2.71).
Pride literally means self-esteem, self-satisfaction, self-worth, self-glorification; ego etc. When pride becomes excessive, it is “Mada” which is sign of the pre-dominance of tamas and rajas and results in delusion, egoism, ignorance and deep attachment. The baneful egoism generates actions, desires and pains. Ravana & Kaikeyi from epic Ramayana and Duryodhana from epic Mahabharata are glaring examples of excessive pride. Pride nullifies the fruit of our good karma. Pride makes us loose a correct perspective of things. Pride earns us many enemies.
On the other hand, humility, Modesty or Namrata (in Hindi), is the virtue which expresses low self-preoccupation and is opposite of Pride. When we perform duties as a service rather than a favor to the God and to the people around us, we cultivate humility.
Bhagavad Gita has listed humility or absence of pride as first virtue (13.7). Swami Vivekananda argues that the concept of humility does not mean "crawling on all fours and calling oneself a sinner." According to him, each human being the Universal, recognizing and feeling oneness with everyone and everything else in the universe, without inferiority or superiority or any other bias, is the mark of humility.
When the yaksha, the divine being asked Yudhishthra, the eldest Pandava brother, “destroying what does one becomes dear”; to which, Yudhishthra had replied by killing pride one becomes dear. Pride keeps us on lonely island. One is unapproachable when he builds strong notions about him and around him.
Categories of pride:
Lord Buddha categorized pride into seven forms:
Grades of Pride:
In Hinduism, different grades of pride are denoted by various nomenclatures viz. Abhiman (Conceit, Vanity, and arrogance), Ahankara (Egoism), Darpa (Pride with arrogance) and Mada (excessive pride).
Humility is the virtue and opposite of pride. It is not sign of weakness but it elevates. Humility is part of the Hindu culture. Hinduism has given wisdom that every living creature has an identical soul in them. So, we are not superior to anyone in essence. In fact, everybody is constituted with same Jiva and Prakirti. All have same emotions, intellect, feelings, body etc. Some may be better in a few areas and worse in other areas. Moreover, everyone is imperfect and commit mistakes. Hence, there is no place of arrogance or pride. The “Namaste” in Hindu culture, not only prevents spread of contagious diseases, but also signify the element of this deep philosophy. Even an old person bow down and touches the feet of the person of honor.
There are a large number of popular wisdom stories in Hinduism on humility & pride such the story of Sri Shankaracharya & Chandala; the story of Shabri and Sri Rama; the story of Bihima & Sri Hanuman etc.
Dr. S Radhakrishnan mentioned that humility in Hindu Dharma is the non-judgmental state of mind when we are best able to learn, contemplate and understand everyone and everything else. In Taoism, humility is defined as a refusal to assert authority or a refusal to be first in anything. Humility is one of the foundations of devotional life. Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu has said:
"Consider yourself as less important than a blade of grass. Be more forbearing than a tree. Do not crave for respect, but respect others. Always sing the praise of Hari's name.
We are again and again drawn to live a mundane life. Selfless work and self-observation draw our attention to real purpose of life. Self-observation brings our attention to the ‘emotional personality’. At this stage, the attitude of nobility is more important than ability.
Action Plan to be humble:
Temperament & Selfless Service
Temperament has two dimensions – Passive and Aggressive. Passive temperament is based on apathy and aggressive temperament is based on selfishness. Passivity makes one want to escape from one’s duties and become unproductive. Shri Krishna ridicules such an individual as a hypocrite because his passivity is not born of wisdom and absence of desire, but ignorance and fear of failure. This only leads one to live as a burden to society. Aggressiveness based on selfishness may make one successful, but not without the manifestation of arrogance and pride.
Hinduism preaches serving both God and humanity. Selfless service or Seva is serving or working without selfish expectation. Selfless service is the antidote to be free of both these temperaments. Service means to perform one’s duties as an offering to the God. According to Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, the joy of giving is far more exhilarating than the joy of getting
Shri Krishna explained the glory of performing duties & selfless actions to Arjuna in Shrimad Bhagavad Gita as under:
1. One should perform the allotted duty as action is superior to inaction. Desisting from action, one cannot even maintain the human body (3.8).
2. It is better to perform one’s own duty, though devoid of merit, than the duty of another well discharged. Even death in the performance of one’s own duty brings blessedness; another’s duty is fraught with fear (3.35). It is not advisable to abandon a prescribed duty. Such abandonment out of ignorance has been declared as Tamasika (18.7).
3. In the path of selfless action there is no loss of effort, nor is there fear of contrary result, even a little practice of this discipline saves one from the terrible fear of birth and death. Selfless actions bring purification of heart which in turn leads to fearlessness (2.40).
4. One should perform his duties efficiently at all times without attachment. Doing work without attachment man attains the Supreme (3.19).
5. One, who think of Me (Brahman/Shree Krishna) at all times and fight with mind and reason thus set on Me (Brahman/Shree Krishna), he will doubtless come to Me (Brahman/Shree Krishna) (8.7).
Hence, there are four basic principles of work:
1. The work is more important than your opinion about it.
2. Attempt to make your work useful to everyone (that may include yourself).
3. Maintain your objectivity in all your work and their results.
4. Do not hesitate to perform your duty and complete whatever you undertake.
Indian Constitution & Hinduism
We are very much proud for the Indian Constitution and celebrating the Republic Day, but we never look through the Hindu Elements in Indian Constitution. Each part of the Constitution begins with the artistic picturization that traces our 5000-year-old history. The glorious history of the great India has been registered in the constitution of biggest democracy and oldest civilization of the world. Not only that it is an affidavit on Hinduism.
The original Indian Constitution, a hand-written document is essentially illustrating rich religious & cultural heritage of Hinduism. Important Parts of the constitution incorporated the photographs of Hindu deities such as Shri Rama, Shri Laxman, Ma Sita, Shri Krishna, Shri Shiva etc and historically important persons & monument works. The various photographs on the parts of the constitution are carefully selected and drawn on the original constitution signed by the members of Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. The original of the book is kept in a special helium-filled case in the Library of the Parliament of India. The calligraphy in the book was done by Prem Behari Narain Raizda. It was illuminated by Nandalal Bose and other artists, published by Dehra Dun, and photolithographed at the Survey of India Offices.
Unfortunately, post first republic day, the various governments never highlighted this vision of our great makers of constitution and buried in the helium filled case and printed faulty constitutional copies disregarding very foundation of our republic. The copy of photolithographed original constitution of India is available on internet and anybody can verify the facts.
The purpose of this article is to highlight vision, mission and the depictions of various arts which have been part of the original constitution approved by the makers of constitution. The details are as follows:
Soul (Jiva), its Composition & Attributes
God, the universal consciousness along with Souls, the individual consciousness and Matter form an organic whole of the Universe. According to the karma, Jivas get material embodiments as per divine will.
Every thought (मनसा, Mansa), every word (वचना,vachna) and every action (कर्मणा, Karmna), good or bad, just goes down and becomes fine, and is there stored up as Samskaras, the impressions and create Karmic account. These impressions of past Karmas cause tendencies and desires. The fulfilment of desires leads to enjoyment and lack of fulfilment leads to sufferings. The cycle of pleasures & pains goes on and Jiva is caught in cycle of birth and death, to reap the fruits his own actions through enjoyments and sufferings. Hence, we become slave of situations. In case, we take decisions based on qualities of soul viz. Love, peace, Happiness, Knowledge, Power, Purity and Bliss and believe the situations are creation of past karma, negative decision and behaviour shall be avoided as a result karmic account or samskara will not be formed.
Composition of Jiva:
Jiva in bondage is composed of three bodies’ viz. Causal Body (Karan sarira, innermost), Subtle Body (Sukshma sarira or Linga-sarira, middle) and Gross Body (Sthula sarira, outermost). The details are as under:
Attributes of Jiva:
According to Madhva, gradation and the classification each Jiva results from the uniqueness of each Jiva. As a reflection of Brahman every Jiva has in him a modicum of Brahman’s essential features – Sat-Chit-Ananda. But due to their own intrinsic capacities, they share these characteristics in varying degrees only. They all alike have a dependent existence, but their capacity to know vastly varies and their joy much more so. In the state of bondage, the differences in nature of Karma clouding them can easily account for this variation in their intelligence, joy and misery. Madhva classified Jivas in three types viz.
According to Vallabhacharya system, the classification of the Jivas is according to their varying capacities. The main classes are: Maryada, Pusti and Pravahini, and these have distinct goals to attain at the end of their evolution.
According to the Advaita system of Shankaracharya, Jivas are all similar in their nature and realize their identity with non-dual Brahman ultimately. Ignorance is the cause of bondage, and liberation is attained when ignorance is removed irrespective of whether the body is alive or not. There is no necessity of physical body for attainment of liberation. The body will fall only when the prarabdha karma of the current body is exhausted. But Ramanujacharya does not accept that an embodied person can be liberated. For, according to him, the cause of embodiment is Karma.
When jiva is suppressed by ignorance, its Dharmabhuta-jnana is contracted. When Jiva is liberated, he continues to maintain his individuality, his Dharmabhuta-Jnana expands and becomes merged in that of God.
Reference: Bhakti Schools of Vedanta – by Swami Tapasyananda, Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai.