Science in Hindu calendar
Hindu calendar system offers a multi-dimensional method of structuring time, combining information about lunar days, solar days, lunar months, solar months, the movements of the Sun and the Moon in relation to stellar constellations, and other astronomically defined time spans. In the Hindu calendar, seasons follow the sun; months follow the moon; and days, both the sun and the moon.
The western or Christian calendar is solar calendar and the Islamic or Higri calendar is lunar calendar. But Hindu lunisolar calendar synchronizes both the solar and the lunar cycles. Hindu calendar has fixed the aberrations as under:
Hindu calendar systems:
All the Hindu calendars contain five parts of information: lunar day (tithi), solar day (diwas), asterism (nakshatra), planetary joining (yoga) and astronomical period (karana). This structure gives the calendar the name Panchangam.
When a solar month completely covers an amanta month, that is, when there are two new moons, one falling at the beginning and the other at the end of the solar month, the amanta month that begins from the first new moon is treated as a leap month and prefixed with the title ‘adhika’ or ‘mala’. We call the leap month adhika or mala month.
7. Karana - A karana is half of a tithi. To be precise, a karaṇa is the time required for the angular distance between the sun and the moon to increase in steps of 6° starting from 0°. There are only 11 such karaṇas which fill up the slots of 30 tithis. There are actually 4 "fixed" (sthira) karaṇas and 7 "repeating" (cara) karaṇas.
Yajnopavita consists of two words, yajno and upavit. Vit means that which is woven, that is cloth and upavit means the upper garment. It is hand spun cotton thread worn across the chest resting on the left shoulder. Yajnopavita is mentioned as Janeu in Hindi. Under Upanayana Samskar, first Yajnopavita is performed to bring person to his father Gotra and then Upanayana ceremony is done to initiate teaching of Veda and teaching started with Gayathri Mantra. The Yajnopavita should be done in seventh years. However, it can be done up to eleventh years of age. The power of Yajnopavita inspires pure character and hard work. By wearing this Yajnopavita, one can reach to the ultimate.
In chapter 2 of Taittireeya Aranyaka discusses the five Maha-yajnas, the daily recitation of the Veda (svadhyaya), the yajnopavita (sacred thread) and sandhya worship. It describes the method of preparation of yajnopavita.
The Yajnopavita is made up of nine fibers.
The 96 number has special significance. Vedas has 96000 Mantras related to karma and Upasana (fire-sacrifice & worship). After Yajnipavita, the student gets the right to study these Mantras. Total Mantras are 100,000. The remaining 4000 Mantra are for Sanyasis.
The Yajnopavita is placed over the right ear lobe during urination or defecations. The reason is explained as under:
Traditions are the set of rituals practiced by a group of people which define the behavior of the people of that group on specific occasion. For generations, specific traditions are followed by Hindus religious without the clear knowledge of science behind them. Many people have been questioning the Hindu traditions and terming them as backwardness.
It is really wonderful to know the deep-rooted benefits of age old traditions followed by Hindus and science behind them. These traditions are helpful in personal hygiene & health, developing positive behavioral attributes and living in non-violent way and happily in joint family system. The advantages are as under:
Personal hygiene & health
Developing positive behavioral attitude
Living in non-violent way and happily
Hindu undivided family system (HUF) has been prevalent historically. Under the system, two or more generations stay together, headed by senior most person called as Karta. Karta makes decisions on economic and social matters and his wife extends control over domestic matters. Family income flows into a common pool, from which resources are drawn to meet the needs of all members, which are regulated by the heads of the family. After amendments in Hindu Succession Act 1956, the female members are given the right of share to the HUF property. In 2016, a judgment of the Delhi High Court ruled that the eldest female member of a Hindu Undivided Family can be its 'Karta' (manager).
Due urbanization, economic development, job opportunities and western influence, HUF witnessed break up and converting into nuclear families.
Personal & Social Advantages: HUF system proved to have following advantages:
What is culture or social behavior? As per Cambridge Dictionary, culture is the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time. All societies are having some traditions or social practices or belief system.
Traditions are evolved over many generations based on value system of the particular society having some rational backing. It is generally passed down by word of mouth, from generation to generation and is, for the most part, undocumented. Traditions are live if have scientific footing. Some traditions tend to become ritualistic when loses their contemporary relevance.
Several Hindu traditions are branded as superstitious but these are based on scientific wisdom gathered by long researches done by Rishis (ancient scientists). However, in absence of teachings about their tangible advantages and apparent link with religious practices, these are exiting from the modern Hindu society. Keeping in view of the above, ancient knowledge of prominent traditions is elaborated hereunder.
Charan Sparsh (Touching of Feet):
Shikha or Choti (Peak) on male head
Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation)
Applying Tilak on forehead
Worship of Tulsi plant (Indian Basil)
Worship of Peepal Tree (Ficus Religiosa)
Kanchedan or Karnvedha (piercing ears)
Why do Indian women wear Choori (Bangles)?
Why do Hindu women wear Bichiya (Toe Rings)?
Why do Hindu women apply Sindoor (Vermillion)?
Why do Hindu women apply Mehndi (Henna)?
While Sleeping Head pointing towards South
Symbols are easy way to denote complex ideas. Hindu religion is symbolized more particularly by sign or mark of “Om”, Swastik, Tilak, etc. Sacred Hindu symbols are considered very auspicious and displayed in homes, work places, temples etc. to invoke good fortunes.
Om (Aum, ॐ):
The significance of Om is as under:
Swastika (स्वास्तिक ):
The significance of swastika which comes from Sanskrit (Devanagari: स्वस्तिक) is as under:
Tilak (तिलक ):
The tilak is worn usually on the forehead on a daily basis or on religious occasions. The tilak is applied with ash (vibhuti), sandalwood paste, red kumkum etc. It has various shapes depending on deities or sects such as three horizontal lines across the forehead, a bindu, U shape etc. The significance of tilak is as under:
Moli / Kalawa (कलावा, :
This is sacred thread which binds one person to another symbolizing protection provided by one who binds it to another.
Kalash ( कलश ):
A vessel filled with water, five green leaves placed on it and a coconut put on the leaves. The Kalash is believed to contain amrita, the elixir of life, and thus is viewed as a symbol of abundance, wisdom, and immortality. Metal pot or Kalasha represents material things: a container of fertility - the earth and the womb, which nurtures and nourishes life. The mango leaves associated with Kama, the god of love, symbolize the pleasure aspect of fertility. The coconut, a cash crop, represents prosperity and power. The water in the pot represents the life-giving ability of Nature.
Yantra (यंत्र, ):
The Sri Yantra or Sri Chakra consists of nine interlocking triangles that radiate from a central point. Of the nine, the four upright triangles represent the masculine side or Shiva; while the five inverted triangles represent the feminine, or the Shakti (Divine Mother). As a whole, the Sri Yantra is used to symbolize the bond or unity of both the masculine and the feminine divinity. It can also mean the unity and bond of everything in the cosmos.
Shankh (Counchshell, ):
Shakh or sea shell is used as trumpet in Hindu rituals. Shankh is believed to be a giver of fame, longevity and prosperity, the cleanser of sin and the abode of Lakshmi, who is the goddess of wealth and consort of Vishnu.
Diya or lighting lamp (दिया :
This symbolizes one of the five panchbhoth (earth, fire, water, space and air) and treated as sacred.
Shri or Shree (श्री):
Shri refer to goddess Lakshmi.
Dhvaja, or 'flag,' is a symbol of victory, signal to all that "Sanatana Dharma shall prevail." Its color betokens the sun's life-giving glow.
Hands in prayer:
It is a sign of respect for the sacred, that which is dear to the heart.
It is a symbol of purity/transcendence. Growing out of the mud, it is beautiful, and though resting on water, it does not touch it.
It is the symbol of Shiva carried by shaivites.
It is a symbol of purity, motherhood and ahimsa (non-violence).
Lotus feet (of guru or deity):
It is touching the feet of superiors’ shows an attitude of submission and service.
Meaning of ‘sanskars’
The Vedic rituals performed since concept ion till death is called as Sanskars. The word ‘sanskar’ means to improve, to purify, and to remove shortcomings. 16 sanskars are performed.
Significance of Sanskars 
As per Vedic belief, there are 3 bodies viz. Physical body (which is cremated or buried after death), Psychic or subtle body (which is physical enough to interact with the physical body and non-physical enough to interact with the soul) and Causal body (which carries the seeds of Sanskars upon death when it goes with the soul).
The sanskars are offered to god to develop divine consciousness in the individual which help him to lead better life and to orient his sub-conscious mind for moksha. All sanskars are done through vedic mantras.
Description of Sanskars