Trikal Sandhya consists of recitation of mantras from the Vedas. Tirkal means three times’. Sandhya means meeting points of day & night and forenoon & afternoon. Trikal Sandhya is also called Sandhyopasana. This is a process of expressing gratitude to nature and formless almighty. Gratitude develops positivity which helps in fulfilling desire and in eradicating grief.
Trikal Sandhya is mandatory for those who are being initiated through the sacred thread ceremony referred to as the Upanayanam by qualified Guru.
Timings of Trikal Sandhya
Purpose of Trikal Sandhya
Stages of Trikal Sandhya
The stages of Trikal Sandhya include Achamana, Anga Vandana, Ganapati Dhyana, Argya Pradhan, Pranayam, Prayaschitha Argyam, dhyana and Gayatri japa. (Mantras are prescribed at stage which should be learnt from qualified Guru)
Tapas (तप्) (Penance or Austerity)
The root word of Tapas in Sanskrit is tapa (तप) which means heat. Tapas or the spiritual energy is generated by practice of austerities like deep meditation, self-control & discipline and other spiritual practices to attain purification and transformation in the self. Tapasya means self-discipline, undertaken to achieve a goal. With the help of Tapas, the practitioner or worshipper experiences supernormal vision.
The word “Tapas” finds mention in Rigveda (Verse -10.154.5), Satapatha Brahmana (Verse -5.3 - 5.17), Chāndogya & Mandukya Upanishads, Atharva Veda (Verse -4.34.1, 6.61.1, 11.1.26), Patanjali’s Yoga Darshan (Verse – 2.1, 2.32) and Bhagwat Gita (Verse - 17.14-19).
Constituents of Tapas:
The Bhagwat Gita (Verse - 17.14-16) deals with tapas from three angles:
Kinds of Tapas:
The Bhagwat Gita (Verse - 17.17-19) defines the purposes of tapas as Sattvika, Rajasika and Tamasika as under:
Purpose of Tapas
Tapas in Kriya Yoga
In the eight limbs of Patanjali’s Yoga Darshan, one of the limbs is Niyama (observances of rules). Niyama are five which comprises purity, contentment, tapas (austerity), self-study and self-surrender (शौचसंतोषतपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः || Verse-2/32). Patanjali’s Yoga Darshan says, tapas, self-study and self-surrender are means of Kriya Yoga (तपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि क्रियायोगः ||Verse-2/1). Tapas word is used in the sense of control over food, forbearance and also the performance of specified kriya.
Fasting, Vrata (व्रत) & Upvas (उपवास)
Fasting is integral part of Hinduism which not only provides freshness to life but also fuel spiritual & religious development. All the religions of the world have adopted the practice of fasting in some form. But in Hinduism, fasting is always associated with other actions to purify body and bring calmness to mind so essential for spiritual upliftment. These actions are Upvas and Vrata which do not have equivalent words in English language.
While fasting is more related to intake of food & drink, Upvas and Vrata are having more of spiritual connotation. The purpose of Upvas is to imbibe the virtues of God. Vrata is a commitment, spiritual practice, or mental discipline. Vratas give the strength to withstand the temptations of the instinctive forces. Fasting, Upvas and Vrata together purify the body, mind and soul.
Abstinence or reduction of all or some food items for definite or indefinite period is called fasting. In Hinduism, fasting is associated with certain dates such as Ekadasi, Pradosha, or Purnima; days such as Monday for Shivji, Tuesday for Hanuman ji in north, Ganesh ji in Maharashtra, Mariamman in south, Thursday for Brihspati or Guru, Friday for Goddess, Saturday for Hanuman ji in Maharashtra; festivals (Maha shivratri, Navratri, Janamashtami, Karwa Chauth, etc.)
The ancient Indian medical system of Ayurveda sees the basic cause of many diseases as the accumulation of toxic materials. Regular cleansing of toxic material keeps us healthy. Fasting overhauls the respiratory, circulatory, digestive and urinary system. In moderate fasting, the organs of the body are cleansed and renewed.
As per research report published in Medical News Today on 7.11.2018, the benefits of intermittent fasting (an eating cycle that includes periods of fasting of around 12–36 hours) based on research are as under:
Vrata (व्रत – Sacred Vow, संकल्प – Resolve)
Vrata has two words in Sanskrit, “Vr” means discipline and “rta” means regularity. In Vrata, the person makes self-commitment to abstain to do certain acts or make vows for spiritual practice. It is basically self-sacrifice or mental discipline. Vrata is a binding force, binding the external mind to the soul and the soul to the Divine. Taking a vow is a sacred trust between yourself, your outer self, your inner self, and your loved ones. A religious vrata is a contract between yourself, the religious community, the Gods and your guru.
References to the vratas are found in the Samhitas, Brahmanas and Aranyakas of all the four Vedas. In Vedas, Rudra is mentioned as the lord of Vratas (Vratapati).
While performing vratas, one must abide by several rules such as one should keep oneself clean and pure, observe celibacy, speak the truth, practice forbearance, avoid non-vegetarian foods and scrupulously perform all the rituals connected with it. Vratas prepare the person for self-transformation and realization.
Types of Vratas
Vratas can be classified according to level at which it is observed i.e. at body levels (kayakia Vratas), at mental level (manas vratas) and at speech level (vachika vratas). Further, it can be classified according to period of its observance, the purpose of its observance or the deities for which it is kept.
At speech level, the Vrata is Maun Vrata i.e. to keep silence for certain period. This purifies speech, brings no harmful effect on other persons, conserves energy and helps the person to introspect peacefully. Maun Vrata is active silence to bring positive change, in contrast to stop speaking out of anger.
Benefits of Vratas
Vratas develop confidence and discipline in life. Vratas give the strength to withstand the temptations of the instinctive forces. However, sometimes failing in the vrata is possible; but striving to fulfil it has the strengthening effect.
Importance of Vrata finds mention in Bhagwat Gita and Yajurveda as under:
Popular Personalities in Hinduism who took Vrata
In Mahabharata, Bhishma took Vrata to remain lifelong Brahmacharya. His vow is popular by name as Bhishma Pratignya. Bhagiratha took Vrata to bring Ganga to earth. For which, he did penance for thousands of years. Chanakya had taken Vrata to replace dhananandha & to keep an worthy successor for the throne of maghada. Mahatma Gandhi took 11 vows viz. non-violence, truthfulness, non-stealing, Brahmacharya, non-possession, physical labor, control of the palate, fearlessness, equality of all religions, use locally made goods and to remove untouchability.
Upvas (उपवास) has not the same meaning as fasting. Upvas has two words in Sanskrit, “Upa” means near and “vas” means sitting. During Upvas, the person, observes chastity, solitude, silence, and do self-introspection. Upvas is just not fasting. On that day, the persons choose to be near their favorite deity, control on all the senses is exercised, withdraw from regular activities, go to the temple, or find a secluded place for their devotion.
Varah Upanishad has explained that the purpose of Upvas is to be near to God, to worship God, to imbibe the virtues of God in life. It is not the name of torturing the body. (उप समीपे यो वासो जीवात्मपरमात्मयोः। उपवासः स विज्ञेयो न तु कायस्य शोषणम्।। - वराहोपनिषद् 2/39)
Emergence of Diverse Modes of Worship in Hinduism
It is always a matter of great interest that the most ancient religion of the world has a very comprehensive range of worship, prayer and to establish connection with God to suit every personality. The emergence of diverse modes of establishing connection with Gods is the outcome of intense researches done by ancient Vedic rishis during over 5000 years ago to saint singers of Bhakti movement which swept Bharat during medieval period.
Worship in Hinduism always aims at achieving Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. Diverse modes of worship such as Yajna, Yoga & Dhyana, Upvas (full or partial fasting to remember god whole day), Japa (chanting of mantra such as Gayatri mantra, beej mantra etc for deity), Bhajan & Kirtan (chanting of hymns/verses in praise of deity) and Upasna (performing traditional puja) are important constituents.
Depending on one’s preferences, one can stick to one or more of the following:
1. Activities by organs – such as yajna, traditional puja system;
2. Activities by mind – such as japa, dhyana, upvas;
3. Activities by mouth – chanting of prayer, mantra, bhajan, kirtan.
The various modes of worship are discussed as under:
Please also see detailed article on my website named as “Yag, Havan and Yajna” published on 22.02.2019 under the category “Puja System”.
Yoga or inner Yajna
Please also see detailed article on my website named as “Patanjali Yog Darshan” published on 28.08.2018 under the category “Philosophy”.
Traditional Puja System
Please also see related articles on my website named as “Puja” published on 10.08.2017, “Tantra” published on 22.02.2019 and “Yantra: under the category “Puja System”.
Upvas, Japa, Bhajan and Kirtan
Please also see related articles on my website namely “Mantra” published on 06.11.2018, “Bhakti Yoga” published on 07.03.2018 under the category “Philosophy”; “Chanting of Mantra” published on 15.09.2018 under the category “Puja System”; “Vaishnava Bhakts” published on 02.03.2018 under the category “Deities, Philosophers & Bhakts”.
Yantra – the Energy Diagrams
The Yantras are geometric diagrams or energy diagrams representing various energy fields, mainly from tantric traditions. Yantra literally means machine or instrument. In Hinduism, since ancient times Yantras are used during worship to correct the economic situation, to defeat enemies and to please god & goddesses. Specific Yantras are associated with specific deities. Most popular Yantras are Sri Yantra, Lakshmi Yantra, Sukh Samridhi Yantra, Vyapaar Vriddhi Yantra, Vastu Yantra, Kubar Yantra, Hanuman Yantra, etc.
Yantras are the physical form of the mantras having various shapes and using lines, dots and shapes such as triangle, circle, hexagon, octagon and the symbolic petals of the lotus spreading from the center. These are symbolic representations of this process of evolution and involution. When these concentric figures are gradually growing away from its center (bindu) in stages, this is for human beings a symbol of the process of macrocosmic evolution. When they are gradually growing towards its center, this is for human beings a symbol of the process of microcosmic involution.
In Hindu ritual practices, which date back to the Vedic times, Yantras are created using certain objects, symbols, sounds, names and forms, and specific divisions of time to invoke the power of a deity.
Constituents of Yantra
Generally, yantras have following constituents:
Types of Yantras
Sri Yantra, also known as Sri Chakra, is called the mother of all yantras because all other yantras derive from it. Sri refers to bhagwati “Lalita tripursundari”. Lalita means one who plays; Tripura means three world as well as three Shakti (Kali, Lakshmi & Sarasvati) and Sundari means beauty. Sri Yantra represents the microcosmic level of the Universe as well as the human body. When Sri Yantra is properly installed, it is highly beneficial and bestows pleasure, prosperity and success.
Sri Yantra is a sacred mathematically precise design and based upon Golden Proportion or Phi ratio. It is represented in three forms viz. plane form (most common), pyramidal form (Meru) and spherical form (Kurma or turtle) which is rarest.
The Sri Yantra has point in the center and a configuration of nine interlocking triangles, surrounded by two circles of lotus petals with the whole encased within a gated frame, called the "earth citadel".
The design of Sri Yantra consists of the following:
Tantra – the Advanced Spiritual Science
Tantra is pure spiritual science which is not well known. The root word “tan” means continuation or expansion. Another root word Tantr means to rule, to govern, and to keep in order. Tantra means expansion of individual consciousness into universal consciousness. The science of Tantra stresses on the three aspects of human existence – physical desire, psychic urge and extreme love for the God. In tantric texts, gross body, astral body and causal body is mentioned as Om, Tat & Sat respectively.
Tantra is widely misconceived. In fact, it is a systematic step by step approach with rigorous physical and psychological discipline to achieve spiritual enlightenment.
Tantra aims to liberate and transform the mind and body from their natural impulses and binding impurities instead of supressing them, and make them fit for self-absorption and self-realization. Different postures, breathing and meditation techniques, and self-purification practices are used for this purpose.
Steps of Tantra
Tantra, Mantra & Seven Chakras
The ancient yogis found seven principle psychic-spiritual energy centres in the human body which emanates different sounds. These sounds are found in the alphabet of Sanskrit, and certain combinations of the sounds were used in ancient processes of concentration and meditation. Sound vibrations with special characteristics are mantras which liberate the mind. All mantras are repeated in synchronization with the inhalation and exhalation of breathing.
The mantra acts as dynamo and helps the individual to associate his or her own individual consciousness with universal consciousness.
Seven Chakras start from end of spine to the crown of head. These are Muladhara (location-perineum, shape-square having triangle with lotus having drooping petals, serpent lying in inactive state, end of spine, element – earth, colour-yellow), Svadhishtana (location-below naval, shape-crescent moon, towards back, element–water, colour-silver), Manipura (location-naval centre, shape-triangle with apex down, element-fire, colour-red), Anahata (location-near heart, shape-hexagram, element-air, colour-blue), Visshuda (location-at level of throat, shape-oval, and element-space, colour-dark indigo or black), Ajna (location-between eye brows, shape-winged globe, element-mind) and Sahasrara (location-below crown, shape-Thousands Petal lotus, element – consciousness, colour-crimson red). Lower five chakras are represented as gross body. Astral body travels from vishudha chakra (centre of knowledge,) to Ajna Chakra (soul centre). The causal body can be felt, when immersed in sahasrara chakra (just below the crown). There are three nerves run in the spine, in left is Ida, in right is Pingla and in centre is Sushumna. Sushumna runs a hollow path called as Kula Path. During the upward journey of Kundalini (subtle energy, parashakti), coursing through the Sushumna channel and the chakras along the way, it is finally brought to the crown chakra, Sahasrara. This union is the realization of the Absolute.
Stages in Tantra
Tantra has four stages viz. Jnanapada (path of self-knowledge), Yogapada (path of self-discipline), Kriyapada (path of spiritual practice) and Caryapada (path of spiritual evolution).
Act of giving - Charity, Donation or दान
Family values, upbringing and religion all play a part in giving in India, with Hinduism mandating giving. Donations reduce attachment to sensual pleasure. Donations are simplest way open all the lumps before death. The detachment begins by donations and forgiveness. However, if charity or donation is inadequate, done with repentance or given to ineligible, then it is worthless. In Vedas, service, charity and benevolence have been attributed to paramount religion. Rigveda (verse – 3.24.5) says, “शतहस्त समाहर सहस्त्र हस्त सं किर” means earn with hundreds of hands and donate with thousands of hands.
The World Giving Index (WGI) is an annual report published (2016) by the Charities Aid Foundation, using data gathered by Gallup, and ranks over 140 countries in the world according to how charitable they are. This annual index measures generosity by three factors: the amount of money donated, participation in volunteering, and helping a stranger. Myanmar despite country in lower middle income claims the title of the world’s most generous country consistently for last three years 2014, 2015 & 2016. (USA – 2nd; Australia – 3rd; New Zealand – 4th; Sri Lanka – 5th; India – 91)
Top 5 most charitable people in the world are Bill Gates (Net worth 84.2 billion, life time donation $27 billion), Warren Buffett (Net worth: $61 billion, life time donations $21.5 billion), George Soros (Net worth: $24.4 billion, life time donations $8 billion), Azim Premji (Net worth $15.9 billion, life time donations $8 billion) and Charles Francis Feeney (Net worth $1.5 million, life time donation $6.3 billion).
In various Hindu scriptures such as Puranas, Mahabharata, Ramcharitramanas etc., importance of donation or daan has been highlighted. Shree Krishna in Shrimad Bhagavad Gita has explained three types of donations as under:
Hindu scriptures have dealt with the various aspects of donations such why donate, what to donate, who to donate, how to donate, when to donate and exemplary stories of donations. Such details with relevant quotations in Sanskrit are as under:
Why Prayer or Worship
Why prayer or worship? Many people pray to fulfil their desires, some people pray as ritual i.e. habitually, some people pray out of fear and very minuscule people pray out of love and affection to the deity. Prayer may be done as per prescribed procedure by the respective religion or by simply meditating.
In Sanskrit language, the word for prayer is prarthana. It is formed by combining words, ‘pra’ meaning ‘intensely’ and ‘artha’ meaning ‘to plead’.
Hinduism is most dynamic religion having widest range of prayers or worships to suit individual temperament and preferences. Worship is not fixed to locations or timings. Hindus worship personal deities to fulfil individual desires or formless Supreme Being to integrate the body, the mind and the Atman in order to evolve into a higher being. While worshipping the Ishta Devata (most loved deity), the person chants and reminds his attributes so that these attributes are imbibed.
The classical approaches in Hinduism are Raja, Jnana, Karma, and Bhakti Yoga, as well as Hatha, Kriya, Kundalini, Laya, Mantra, Nada, Siddha, and Tantra Yoga. Meditation, contemplation, mantra and prayer finally converge into a unified force directed towards the final stage, piercing the pearl of wisdom called bindu, leading to the Absolute.
Why Prayer and Prayer room:
Various rituals and techniques of prayer in Hinduism play an important role in enhancing physical health, mental serenity and establishing connection with Supreme Consciousness. Scientific studies have been conducted to investigate the healing effects of prayers. The role of prayers and prayer room can be enlisted as follows:
Why & what are the different types of Prayers:
Hinduism has devised diversified types of prayers or worships depending on the pre-dominance of intellect, mind, determination or physical activities which can be classified as under:
1. For Persons of high emotions:
2. For Persons of strong will power and high discipline:
a. Dharna, Dhayan and Samadhi.
b. Japa of Mantras which is sacred syllable or set of syllables (Please see a detailed article on “Chanting of Mantra” on this website under the category of Puja).
c. Tapas i.e. austerity or Penance or fasting.
3. For Person who is activity oriented:
a. Ritual worship i.e. lighting & waving of the lamp, burning incense sticks, offering food, Arti, prostrating in front of god, reading chalisa of deities (Shiv Chalisa, Hanuman Chalisa, Durga Chalisa etc.) to invoke, praise and asking him/her to help and remove all obstacles and hardships on the path to fulfilment, pronouncing 108 sacred names of the deities reminding their qualities, chanting mantras (moola mantra, beej mantra, gayatri mantra, etc.) having divine powers etc.
b. Yajna & Havan
c. Pilgrimage to holy places
d. Circumambulation of a temple
4. For Persons of intellect:
a. Reading of religious books (Ramcharitramanas, Bhagwat Geeta, Shad Darshan, Upnishads, etc) regularly to imbibe knowledge to understand moral & religious duties and clear doubts of life and moksha.
b. Listening or Sravana of spiritual texts,
c. Contemplation or Manana of spiritual teachings,
d. Nididhyasana or practice is a rational & cognitive process by which intellectual conscience is transformed into stillness, a calm in which the soul lays itself open to the Divine.
Why worship of Sakar forms or Nirakar Supreme Being:
All religions have images to worship which may be Gurugranth Sahib, Cross with Jesus hanging on it or Mother Mary, holy Kabaa, Arc & torah, Buddha or Mahavira or Tirthankaras.
Hinduism is a monotheistic religion which believes that God manifests Himself or Herself in several forms. One is supposed to worship the form that is most appealing to the individual without being disrespectful to other forms of worship. Vedanta holds the view that Brahman is cosmic consciousness (Sat-Chit-Ananda – Truth-Consciousness-Bliss) who creates universe – jivatma & physical universe, maintains and withdraws within it.
However, Hinduism recognised various needs and desires of human being and to fulfil them various deities & forms are invoked. Though supreme God is nirakar (formless), it manifest in many forms to fulfil the needs. (Please see a detailed article on “what is God under Hinduism” on this website under the category of Principles).
What do Hindu Prayers invoke?
Vedic Mantras are sacred formulae, if chanted in prescribed way and counts, may realise the deity of mantra and bring desired results. Mantras with special syllable energise the specific points of parasympathetic nervous system which have positive health impacts besides harmonising different levels in the body-mind. It has the effect of quieting the mind and integrating the gross bodies with the divine, inducing the latent spiritual experiences (sukshma) into the realm of the patent.(stula).
Word “Mantra” is derived from Sanskrit of “Mananaat Traayate iti mantrah". Mananaat means by chanting; Traayate means protect ourselves. Mantra is the sound-form of the Deity one worships. Mantra requires specific austerities and knowledge of the science of chanting. The present article deals exclusively into Chanting of Mantra.
Before chanting the Vedic mantras (chants or hymns) it is obligatory to pay one’s respect to the seer (rishi) through whom the mantra was revealed, the deity to whom it is addressed and Chandas - the meter in which the mantra is composed.
(Note - An article of mantra named as Mantras – a key to Health, Happiness, Peace & Prosperity, is already published in this website, under category “Philosophy. The article covers the various aspects of Mantras viz. what is Mantra, Reciting of Mantras, Impacts of Chanting of Mantras, Science behind Mantras and Hindu Philosophy of Mantras.)
Aspects of Mantra
Science of Chanting Mantra
Precautions in Chanting of Mantra
Initiation of Mantra
It is advantageous to take the mantra from the Guru who has realized that mantra because it can add divine potency into it to bring expeditious benefits. Further, it tells the correct pronunciations of Mnatra.
Elocution of Mantra in Japa:
There are 3 forms of Japa:
Mantra uttered in Upamshu form is hundred times more efficacious than Vaikhari form and in Maanaseeka form its power increases thousand fold.
Pronunciation of Mantra in Japa:
Apart from grammar, the accent, intonation, articulation and pronunciation play a vital role in chanting mantras. They are variously defined as - Ucha stayi (high pitch) neecha stayi (low pitch) madhyama stayi (middle pitch) deergha (elongated) hrasva (shortened), gana (repetition back and forth) udatta (high key), anudatta (low key) swara (tone) etc. so that even the letter, let alone the words of the mantras and other sacred literature could not be altered or tampered with at will.
Chandas of Mantra
Chandas is the science of metres. Chandas-sutra has been dealt by Pingala (2nd cen. B.C.). Usually each meter consists of one to five pādas or ‘feet’. Each pāda should consist of a specific number of letters. The metre or chanda is very important when chanting mantras. If the metre of the mantra is broken, it loses its impact and will not produce any benefit at all.
Syllables are classified into two categories, Guru and Laghu. A string of Guru-Laghu sequence of a particular length is called a metre. There are various metres in which the Vedic mantras are composed, such as Gayatri, Anusthup, Trishtup and Jagati. The chandas of a mantra determines its usage, such as its purpose and context.
For instance, the famous Gāyatri meter consists of three pādas and eight letters per pāda. Gayatri Mantra is recited thus:
Pada 1 - Aum bhur bhu [U] va [/U] h s [B] va [/B] h
Tat[B] sa[/B][U] vi[/U] tur va[B] re**[/B] n [U] ya[/U] m
Pada 2 - bhar[B] g[/B] o[U] de[/U] v as[B] ya[/B] dhee ma hi
Pada 3 - dhi[U] y[/U]o yo[B] na[/B] h pra[U] ch[/U] o da[B] ya**[/B] t.
(Where the bold syllable is in higher octave, 2 stars require additional elongated recital in high octave, underline means lower octave.)
(Note:Separate articles on AUM and Gayatri mantra are already published in this website, under category “Puja System”.)
Hence, Chanting of Mantras is complete science and if practised in prescribed way, mantras can be realised.
In Hinduism, one of the essential constituents of religious rites is Yajna (यज्ञ). Yajna, a fire ritual is an act of gratitude to divine and to seek his blessings. Yajna brings material, environmental, psychological and spiritual benefits. Yajna can be performed with a specific desire in mind (sakama yajna), or without any desire, for the benefit of humanity in general (nishkama yajna). Yajna is larger public fire rituals. Homa or Havana is private ritual around a symbolic fire, such as those observed at a wedding.
The primary constituents of a Yajña are the inspiration or urge of the doer (भावना), learning (स्वाध्याय), rites involved (कर्म), offerings (त्याग), deity (देवता) and the results (फल). The process of Yajna is learnt from Vedas & Vedangas. Yajna involves three kinds of offering viz. sacrifice (याग), donation (दान) and offering (होम).
The word Yajna is derived from “Yaj” of Sanskrit which means "to worship, adore, honour, revere". The Yajna has its roots in Rigveda, Yayurveda, and Karma Mimansa. Kalpa Sūtrās deal with the rules, regulations and austerities of yajña, the geometry of altars, and the rites to be undertaken at each stage of life. Shulba sutra describes the geometric ratios of Vedi altar, with mathematical precision and geometric theorems.
According to Vedic scholars, the main kinds of yajnas are: paka yajna, havi yajna, (pancha) maha yajna, ati yajna and shiro yajna. Each yajna offers a way to purify the senses, mind, mental archetypes, tattwas (elements), gunas or the entire ecological system.
Homas are performed in those designated places to the corresponding devatas, according to the rites of the respective Vedas. Major Yajnas/yāgas are performed in premises meant for them, called yāga śālās.
The duration of Yajna depending on the type, may vary from a few hours to few months. Depending on the periodicity, the rites (karma) are classified as Nitya karma (done regularly. for e.g. nitya karma is Agni hotra - the homa done thrice a day); Naimittika karma (done on specific occasions. For e.g. pitru tarpana) and Kāmya karma (done optionally with specific purpose e.g. soma yāga and vājapeya).
Yajnas are discussed in detail (benefits, constituents, processes, types and relevant Hindu scriptures) as under:-