Modern Science has proved that entire universe, non-living and living beings are ultimately composed of sub-atomic particles.
According to Sankhya philosophy of Hinduism, the universe is caused by interaction of Purusha and Prakriti. Prakirit cause evolution of 23 elements which include five gross elements, five sense organs, five action organs, five subtle elements, mind, ego & Intellect. Total elements are 25 which also include Purusha and Prakriti.
1. Prakriti is first principal tattva (element), which caused evolution of material world i.e. matter, energy or force.
2. Prakriti is dynamic and trigunas i.e. composed of three gunas (characteristics, behavioural attributes) viz. sattva, Rajas & Tamas.
3. Prakṛiti remains unmanifested as long as the three gunas sattva, Rajas & Tamas are in equilibrium.
4. This equilibrium of the gunas is disturbed when prakṛti comes into proximity with consciousness or Purusha.
5. Purusha (Soul, Atman, first element) is eternal pure consciousness. The Purusha is only thing which is immaterial. Love, existence and knowledge (Sat Chit Anand) are not the qualities of the Purusha, but its essence.
6. Prakriti (प्रकृति) second element caused evolution of intellect which led further evolution of 22 other elements (tattvas) as under:
Akasha is physical element having quality of sound. It is not empty space.
Intellect helps in judgement and to discriminate between subject and object i.e. self and non-self.
Egoism is the identification of the self with the instrument of senses (chitta i.e. memory, mind i.e. place of thoughts, Buddhi i.e. decision making and Indriyas). There emanates two sets of objects from ahamkara. The first set comprises of the manas (mind), the five sense-organs and the five motor organs. The second set consists of the five elements which may exist in two forms, subtle and gross.
Gunas of Prakriti