Samkhya Darshan (451 Sutras and 527 including sub-verses, 6 chapters) was founded by Rishi Kapil around the 6th - 7th century BC. Samkhya Darshan, one of the six Hindu Philosophies deliberates on Prakriti, Jivatma and moksha. Samkhya means accurate, proper, and correct. Samkhya believes in dwatvad (द्वेतवाद) i.e. the creation is by Prakriti and Jivatma. The right knowledge (vivek) differentiates Prakriti (nature) and Jivatma (soul, prusha).
Maherishi Kapil sometimes called as atheist. But many verses pronounce that Parmatma (Brahman, Supreme consciousness) is ultimate cause which proves him as theist.
Samkhya Darshan has main principle of “Satkaryavad” (सत्कार्यवाद) means universe is created for some reason by original power. Satkaryavad has two forms viz. “Parinamvad” (परिणामवाद) and “Vivartvad” (विवर्तवाद). Parinamvad means actual modification happens into substance. Vivartvad means actual modification does not happen but only appears. As per Samkhya Darshan, following are the key principles:
1.1 - Life brings us pleasures and pains. However, generally, we experience miseries or feel pain unbearable and last long. Retirement (निवृति) of all the types of miseries is Moksha. Miseries/Pains are categorised as under:
1.2. to 1.6 - It is not possible for the sufferer to retire griefs through external means which prove inefficient as the same grief reappears upon disconnection of those means. Hunger is satisfied by eating food, disease is cured by taking medicine etc. these natural means are also efforts. But the pains cannot be removed permanently through external means. Hence, intelligent people should find root cause of pain instead of removing it temporarily through external means. Moksha is highest among all pleasures. Hence, people should try for it only. Other pleasures are transient.
1.7 to 1.19 & 35 sub-verses addenda of 1.19 - Sorrowfulness is not the natural quality of Jivatma, because by nature, everybody wants to remain happy. But happiness destroys. Time is not cause of grief, because nobody is sad all the time and Jivatma remains same all the time. Different stages namely awakening, dream and sleeping or childhood or puberty or old age, are also not the cause of pain and suffering, because these stages are linked to body and not Jivatma. Karma (action) is also not the cause of sufferings of Jivatma as it is done by body and mind (मनसा, वाचा, कर्मणा – by mind, by speech and by organs of action)). Without sadistic or forbidden actions, there is no grief in the life. Sadness is also not the quality of mind otherwise everybody will be sad always. Prakriti (nature) is also not the cause of bondage as it is itself not free. Jivatma is permanent, pure, intelligent and free. Due to false-knowledge/ignorance and it being in association of nature, Jivatma becomes confined.
Ignorance cannot be treated as a thing otherwise it would contradict principle of Advaita. If ignorance is not a thing, then it cannot be cause of bondage. Ignorance can also not be treated as substance. It is not correct to say that ignorance is neither of two. It is also incorrect to say, Jivatma and senses are in similar relation to desires; because desires are not in relation to Jivatma. Knowledge, movement or realisation cannot be cause of bondage of Jivatma. Knowledge arises from senses or samskars or practically, but Jivatma is not having senses or samskara. Movement is done in body, but Jivatma is inactive. Jivatma cannot be considered idol as it is neither created nor destroyed. It is eternal. The movement of Jivatma is through subtle body. Karma is not cause of bondage of Jivatma as it is function of body. In fact Jivatma is different from pleasure or pain and witness of three kinds of miseries.
1.20 to 1.24 – Prakriti and Jivatma bondage is due to ignorance which is not same as time and direction. Ignorance cannot be destroyed except by vivek (judgement, knowledge). Bondage of Jivatma is due to its superficial knowledge which creates attachment and aversions. This develops three types of miseries. When ignorance/false knowledge of Prakriti is destroyed, bondage is broken. Pleasure & pain are felt in mind but actually it is different. Miseries cannot be destroyed by reasoning and proofs. Complete knowledge of Prakriti and Jivatma can only destroy miseries.
(न नित्यशुद्धबुद्धमुक्तस्वभावस्य तद्योगस्तद्योगादृते II1/19; तद्योगोऽप्यविवेकान्न समानत्वम् II1/20)
1.25 – Knowledge of Prakriti, Jivatma and Parmatma is gained by inference and not directly.
1.26 – Prakriti has three attributes (गुण) viz. Sattva, Raja and Tamo in equal proportion. Sattva means truth, realty or goodness, gives light; Rajas means passion or foulness, does not give light or covering, leads to activity; Tamas means darkness, to restraint or inertness. Satguna, Tamoguna are mutually opposed. When body has virtuousness, is not habitual of Tamoguna, and in the same place where Tamoguna resides.
Prakriti (nature) is root of material forms and is not produced. From Prakriti, Mahat (बुद्धि, intellect) is produced. From Mahat, ego ( अहंकार) is produced. From ego five subtle elements or tanmatra viz. forms or visibility, taste, smell or odour, touch and sound (रूप, रस, गंध स्पर्श और शब्द) arises and they in turn produces five gross elements (पांच भूत), namely the earth from element of odour, water from element of taste, air from element of touch, fire from element of visibility and ether (akasha) from element of sound. Ego also produces five organs of senses or perception - eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin; and five organs of actions – voice, hands, feet, anus & organs of generation (पांच ज्ञानेन्द्रि और पांच कमेंन्द्रिय). From ego, manas is produced. Other than Prakriti is Jivatma. These are 23 elements.
Manas is receptive and discriminating faculty which receives and individualise the impressions made by the outward objects on the senses. These are submitted to ego and by which an attribute of personality is given, thereafter it passes through mind. Mind present is it in distinct form. The Jivatma beholds these presentations, as objects are seen in the mirror. Hence, Jivatma has the knowledge of external world.
(सत्त्वरजस्तमसां साम्यावस्था प्रकृतिः प्रकृतेर्महान्महतोऽहंकारोऽहंका-रात्पञ्च तन्मात्राण्युभयमिन्द्रियं तन्मात्रेभ्यः स्थूलभूतानि पुरुष इति पञ्च-विंशतिर्गणः II 1/26)
1.27 to 1.31 – The knowledge of five subtle elements and ego are gained from gross elements, because such knowledge is not found in the state of samadhi and sushupati. From ego, existence of mind is inferred. From mind, the existence of Prakriti is inferred. Since ingredients of Prakriti are for others, it infers presence of Jivatma. (The knowledge of formal existence is through perception. Inference is the process of reasoning.)
1.32 to 1.46 - The root cause of 22 elements is from Prakriti. Prakriti has no root. Prakriti is cause of world. Two elements viz. mind & ego are produced by Prakriti and rest 20 elements arise from ego. Prakriti is like molecule. The world cannot be said to be substance as appear in dream state and did not arise due to any defective cause and cannot be created through karma due to its qualities like avidya.
1.47 to 1.50 - Liberation (Moksha) is not attained by Vedic karmas (yajna etc.), because we get worldly pleasure from Vedic Karmas, which also get destroyed. Those who attain wisdom about Prakriti and Jivatma, they get liberation. Without wisdom, yajna etc. kamya karma (काम्य कर्म) done with desires, bring misery after misery, not liberation. Karmas (actions) done with selfish motives or unselfish/desire less motives, both karmas being similar in worldly pleasures, bring miseries. Without wisdom, there is no liberation.
1.51 - The effect of karma is partial happiness, so it is temporary, but the result of knowledge is the destruction form of avidya. The fruits of karma are enjoyed by body & soul. Since body is perishable, fruit of karma is also perishable. Knowledge of soul is permanent.
1.52 to 1.57 – The true knowledge is attained when wise person and to be learnt are close. The instruments of this knowledge are of three types - direct, by guess and word. If the substance is material and near, knowledge is through the direct evidence; the substance that is non-materialistic and far away, knowledge is indirectly. The substance is not visible in three time periods are understood by the word proof. The word here is the order of the yogi and God. If substance has a connection with senses & mind, its realization is called a direct knowledge. The mind and the senses are direct evidence and their subject matter is only natural & external matter and not unnatural matter. God is perceived through mental vision as senses cannot work on it. Vedas are said to be words of God. Without proof of God, the evidence of the Vedas cannot be established; and without the Vedas, there cannot be a proven proof of God.
1.58 to 1.59 – Free or bounded consciousness cannot perceive the creation of world. Hence, mental perception has to be considered. Yogis perceive God in the state of Samadhi, because there is no proof of God without a steady mind. God cannot say both bound and free, because both are relative. God is different from both stages. Doing the world is his nature, therefore desire is not needed. God is free as he is capable of doing, not doing and vice versa. Worship brings wisdom which attains liberation. This shows existence of God.
1.62 - The work that is normally done in the world is by the power of God, and the work which is done in every body; they are by the power of Jivatma. The soul of the world is called Parmatma and soul of the body is Jivatma. Conscience (internal organ) in company of Jivatma illuminates.
1.67 & 1.68 - As long as man has a common knowledge of the object, but does not have true knowledge, then it is suspicion. When doubt cannot be cleared without proof and without propensity, suspicion is not cleared. Evidences only prove both nature and soul. Knowledge is created by seeing three types of evidences viz. antecedent (cause), result (effect) and by exemplifying (from samples).
1.69 to 1.73 – Enjoyment (pleasures & sufferings) is for Jivatma. Fruits of actions done by senses are enjoyed or suffered by Jivatma. In absence of true knowledge, Jivatma feels the disorders of body etc. in himself. When true knowledge is acquired through evidences, Jivatma does not feel pleasure or pain. The subjects of the senses become indistinguishable due to distance, disorders and incompatibility.
1.74 to 1.77 - Being very subtle, Prakriti does not create direct knowledge. But by seeing work of Prakriti in the world, presence of Prakriti is proved. Seeing the work leads to estimation of reason. Some consider Brahman as the cause of the world, others to atoms and some say world as illusion. But when the reason is estimated by seeing a work and seeing the reason, the work is estimated, then it is not unreasonable to believe that Pratriti is the cause; because all the functions are of nature. Secondly, Jivatma is unchanging and is liberated from the resultant nature due to knowledge.
1.78 to 1.90 - All the work/deed has three attributes, sattva, rajas & tamas. If deed is not treated as real, then it cannot happen. Further, creation of pleasure, pain, attachment etc. will be disputable because Parmatma is without pleasure or pain etc. There is a slight difference in atom and nature, therefore nature has proved the cause of the world. Unreal cannot be cause of world. In this world, cause of everything is decided. As per rules of cause, unreal cannot be cause. Being the potential of causation is the reason for the deed, because unreal cannot create real. Before creation, potential is within cause. Manifestation of deed is called creation. Deed is ruined means amalgamations of deed into cause which the same condition which was before creation. For example, plant manifests from seed. There can be dispute, which come first plant or seed; deeds or man. But it does not make difference, due to causation, deed was created or deed was manifested due to creation. Deed is transient and has action. Conjugation (visible) or normal properties are found in the work. There is a distinction between the special qualities, cause and work.
(तत्र प्राप्तविवेकस्यानावृत्तिश्रुतिः II 1/48)
1.91 to 1.93 - Prakriti (cause) and world, both have three attributes (sattva, rajas & tama) and inanimate (अचेतनत्व). Sattva attribute creates pleasing deeds such as love & affection, endurance & patience, contentment etc. Rajas attribute creates painful deeds such as displeasure, grief etc. Tamas attribute creates deeds of attachment such as sadness/gloom, sleep, etc. lightness has similarity and activeness & heaviness have dissimilarity with virtuous people. Activeness has similarity and lightness & heaviness have dissimilarity with active people. Heaviness has similarity and activeness & lightness have dissimilarity with inactive/gloomy people.
1.94 to 1.102 – Prakriti and Jivatma are different. Hence, mahat work, sensual work, panchbhoot etc. different from Prakriti and Jivatma. Prakriti & Jivatma are quiet form and do not increase or decrease. Hence, they are not work/deed. Increase or decrease can happen in work and not in cause. Mind etc. increase on achieve end result and decrease on non-achievement. Mahat being with three attributes is evidence of invisible Prakriti (since subtle).
1.103 to 1.107 - There is no dispute about Jivatma. Jivatma is different from body, senses and conscience. Prakriti has three attributes (sattva, rajas & tamas) but Jivatma is pure, confined and independent. Jivatma being authority is different from Prakriti.
(शरीरादिव्यतिरिक्तः पुमान् II 1/104; त्रिगुणादिविपर्ययात् II 1/106)
1.108 & 1.109 – Body is not enjoyer. If the body will be considered as an enjoyer, then no one will have tendency to attain liberation, because liberation would be possible by the destruction of the body. Pleasure and pain etc. are natural qualities of Prakriti and natural qualities are not destroyed. So salvation is impossible. Hence, it is concluded that Jivatma is enjoyer and different from 23 tattvas (elements).
1.110 to 1.129 – Prakriti being inert cannot be luminous and Jivatma is luminous. Jivatma is without attributes. Three attributes are of Prakriti. Shruti also rendered Jivatma as without attributes. Jivatma is witness of sushupti etc. Sushupti is virtue of conscience (internal organs, seat of thought, feeling etc.) By examining cycle of birth and death of so many living beings, it is concluded Jivatmas are many. Vedas proclaim that virtuous people go to heaven, wicked people go to hell and wise people get moksha. Body get ruined and Jivatmas enter into many bodies say human being, animal, bird etc. Hence, Jivatma is eternal. Pleasure or pain is not the attributes of Jivatma as its attributes are pure, perceptive, neutral, inactive, confined and independent. Pleasure or pain is attributes of mind. Jivatma beholds as eye witness. Jivatma are many but it is not inconsistent with Adviata because adviata explains uniqueness of the class. Parmatma is omnipresent, pure and liberated and cannot be modified. Those wise persons who know the reason of bondage of Jivatma, such wise persons can explain Jivatma through their wisdom. Liberated Jivatma is not merged with Parmatma. Parmatma is different from Jivatma and Prakriti. Jivatma is not liberated forever and can be re-born. Jivatma is neutral and enveloped by body. The performance of Jivatma is through the influence/action of mind and mind power is due to Jivatma.
(जन्मादिव्यव-स्थातः पुरुषबहुत्वम् II 1/114; व्यावृत्तोभयरूपः II 1/125; नित्यमुक्तत्वम् II 1/127; औदासीन्यं चेति II 1/128)
2.1 & 2.2 – the performance and tendency of Prakriti is for enjoyment and moksha of Jivatma. There is no liberation from one birth. After many births, deaths, diseases, sorrows etc., knowledge of Prakriti & Jivatma arises; then liberation is attained through detachment/indifference. Detachment may develop in first birth.
(विमुक्तमोक्षार्थं स्वार्थं वा प्रधानस्य II 2/1; विरक्तस्य तत्सिद्धेः II 2/2)
2.3 – Moksha/Mukti (liberation, Salvation) can be by simply hearing. Such hearing is done due to virtues of many births. However, detachment is not achieved by hearing. But due to audience of wisdom, mukti takes place. Audience of wisdom does not take place so soon. Person cannot get liberated from the power of ignorance. But the audience of wisdom is done through Yoga, through which person is liberated. Hundreds of obstacles are created in this yoga. For this reason, this yoga is also proved in many births. Due to this, a very few persons attain liberation and by all.
(न श्रवणमात्रात्तत्सिद्धिरनादिवासनाया बलवत्त्वात् II 2/3)
2.4 – Prakriti strives constantly for enjoyment and liberation of Jivatma.
2.5 to 2.11 – After considering Prakriti as real, virtual presence of conscious (Jivatma) into unconscious (Prakriti) and unconscious into conscious are proved. By seeing worldly actions, it is proved that Prakriti is the instrument. Wise person attain moksha with the help of Prakriti and ignorant indulge into enjoyment. Despite Jivatma is in association of Prakriti, Jivatma is not the cause of universe. Unconscious Prakriti with the help of conscious Jivatma, create universe; or presence of attachment & aversion, enjoyment etc. is called universe. Mahat etc. elements create panchbhoots. Mahat etc. elements are not for their own sake but for the salvation. Because Mahat etc. elements are to be destroyed.
2.12 - The direction and time both of these originate from the sky, because of which both of them are eternal like the sky, that is, the extensiveness in the sky, this extensiveness is in both of them, because of that both are eternal.
2.13 to 2.15 – The deterministic power is buddhi. Buddhi has attributes viz. virtues, wisdom and detachment are sattva attributes, tendency of luxuries are attributes of rajas and wickedness, ignorance, attachment and weakness are attributes of tamas.
(अध्यवसायो बुद्धिः II 2/13; तत्कार्यं धर्मादिः II 2/14; महदुपरागाद्विपरीतम् II 2/15)
2.16 to 2.27 – Arrogance/pride is due to ego. Five sense organs, five organs of action, mind and five subtle elements or tanmatra (forms or visibility, taste, smell or odour, touch and sound) are actions of ego. Satvic ego is manifested through five sense organs, five organs of action and mind. Five sense organs, five organs of action and mind are perishable. Senses are subtle and cannot be perceived by themselves. Sensual powers (smell, taste, touch etc.) conclude about existence of many senses. The organs of senses & actions are connected with mind (मन). Mind assumes different characters as per the associations/inputs (sattva, rajas or tamas) of senses say lover with beloved, sage with sages. If senses enjoys tamasic food or vision (porn film), mind becomes like that. Mind is both organ of perception and organ of action. Based of impulses/impressions received, mind works.
(अभिमानोऽहंकारः II 2/16; एकादशपञ्चतन्मात्रं तत्कार्यम् II 2/17; गुणपरिणामभेदान्नानात्वमवस्थावत् II 2/27)
2.28 to 2.32 - Five organs (instruments) of senses - eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin; and five organs of actions – voice, hands, feet, anus & organs of generation, all are for different purposes. These ten organs are instruments of Jivatma. Jivatma is audience. The functions of three internal organs (instruments) viz. buddhi, mind and ego are separate. Buddhi (Intellect) is for knowledge; manas (mind) is for thoughts and ego is for pride. The ten external instruments seize, retain and manifest the external objects to internal instruments. Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana and Samana are five vayu (air, gas) which reside in heart, anus, entire body, throat and naval respectively. These vayu are subtle forces for respiration, excretion, circulation of blood, sensibility of skin and digestion. Breath and vayu are two different.
(त्रयाणां स्वालक्षण्यम् II 2/30; सामान्यकरणवृत्तिः प्राणाद्या वायवः पञ्च II 2/31)
2.33 to 2.47 - Evidence (direct manifestation), opposite (false knowledge), option (suspicion), sleep, memory (remembering), these are five sentiments of mind which create happiness or pain. When the mental sentiments/attitudes cease, then mind becomes stable and resides in Jivatma. When activities of external instruments/organs of senses & actions, mind and impact of desires, retire/cease; Jivatma stabilises in its own self, covering of Jivatma vanishes and it attains moksha. When thoughts are removed, the Jivatma becomes chaste and healthy. The tendency of the senses is due to nature which acts in association of Jivatma. As cow himself take out milk for calf, likewise senses work for Jivatma. There total thirteen instruments (10 external & 3 Internal). Mind receives the ideas from external instruments and delivers it to Buddhi. Buddhi works as direct agent of Jivatma. In external and internal, mind is head. Senses cannot work without mind. All the samskars are in the mind. Despite no instrument to see and hear, deaf and dump have good memory; because at the time of knowledge, remembrance power is not destroyed. Memory is inferred by Buddhi. Rishi Kapil believed Buddhi and Chit, both as one. Tendencies in senses are not possible with mind. All senses have similar tendencies but purpose-wise senses may be more important than others. Although external and internal instruments are executing the work/karma yet fruits are enjoyed by Jivatma.
(वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टाक्लिष्टाः II 2/33; तन्निवृत्तावुपशान्तोपरागः स्वस्थः II 2/34)
3.1 to 3.3 - Five subtle elements or tanmatra viz. forms or visibility, taste, smell or odour, touch and sound produces five gross elements. Gross elements form gross (macro) body and subtle elements form subtle (micro) body. Twenty two elements (five organs of senses, five organs of actions, five tanmatra, five gross elements, mind and buddhi) are root cause of body without these actions (karma) cannot be done.
(अविशेषाद्विशेषारम्भः II 3/1; तस्माच्छरीरस्य II 3/2; तद्बीजात्संसृतिः II 3/3)
3.4 to 3.8- Tanmatra continue to have tendency to build gross body till wisdom is not arisen. Gross body has tendency till it is usable. When ignorance is over, mahaparlya takes place. During period of enjoyment, Jivatma is bound with gross and subtle bodies.
(आविवेकाच्च प्रवर्तनमविशेषाणाम् II 3/4; मातापितृजं स्थूलं प्रायश इतरन्न तथा II 3/7)
3.9 to 3.16 - Subtle body (10 subtle elements of organs of senses & action, 5 Tanmatra, mind and buddhi -17 elements) always accompanies the Jivatma as outward covering in migrating to another body. Subtle body also called spiritual body, or rudimentary body or astral body or linga. It is endowed with a separate vitality of a subtle kind but still material as formed from Prakriti. Subtle body deposit is connected with gross body which may be produced asexually or in the mother’s womb sexually. Both subtle and gross bodies feel pleasure or pain. Jivatma feels pleasure or pain through subtle body. Due to differences in karma, gross bodies are different. Hence, gross bodies are to enjoy karma. Subtle body resides in gross body without it subtle body cannot live free. Subtle body is consequence of molecule. Subtle body is annamaya. Subtle body is made for Jivatma.
(सप्तदशैकं लिङ्गम् II 3/9; व्यक्तिभेदः कर्मविशेषात् II 3/10)
3.17 to 3.22 – Gross bodies are made of gross elements - earth, water, air, fire and ether (akasha). Some Acharya do not consider ether as element. Some say that this gross body is a physical i.e. terrestrial and four other gross elements are mere names. The human body has a higher degree of earth element therefore the body is terrestrial. The Tejas (fire) are much faster in the people, their body is tejas, is not conscious by nature. Gross body is not produced by conscious elements. Hence, gross body is not conscious but in association of consciousness, it becomes conscious. If the body is considered as a consciousness by nature, then it can also be a fault that there will not be any different state of activity, death, sleeping, because the body is conscious in nature, then how many such animate power in death goes away.
(पाञ्चभौतिको देहः II 3/17;)
3.23 to 3.28 – True knowledge and perception of differentiation in animate & inanimate (consciousness & unconsciousness; चेतन और अचेतन) leads to moksha. Ignorance is cause of bondage. There is liberation from knowledge only. Salvation cannot be for both knowledge and action. In states of dreaming and awake, the first is reflection and the second is true. Both of them cannot be together as these against each other. In this way knowledge and action (karma) cannot remain in the same moment. Hence, anything against knowledge cannot be the purpose of liberation. It cannot be karma, progeny or donation, for liberation. Yajna, meditation etc. do not fructify into moksha.
(ज्ञानान्मुक्तिः II 3/23; बन्धो विपर्ययात् II 3/24; इतरस्यापि नात्यन्तिकम् II 3/27)
3.29 to 3.37 – Pure hearted yogis with highly excellent yogic power can do everything which is as per principles of Prakriti. Yogi should have the true knowledge. Detachment from fondness/attachment of worldly or sensual pleasures is called dhyan (meditation/contemplation) i.e. stability in mind. Patanjali has considered the eight limbs of yoga as means of wisdom. Dhyan should be done till all the distractions of mind are removed. The distractions are removed by dharna, asana and prescribed karma. Dharna means control of breath while exhalation (रेचक), inhalation (पूरक) and holding inside (कुम्भक). Asana means sitting stable and without stress for long time. The prescribed karmas (यम, नियम और प्रत्याहार) are karmas which are rendered by the scriptures for respective ashrams. Asceticism (वैराग्य) and by the practice dharna, asana and prescribed karma, create wisdom and help in Samadhi.
(रागो-पहतिर्ध्यानम् II 3/30; वृत्तिनिरोधात्तत्सिद्धिः II 3/31; धारणासनस्वकर्मणा तत्सिद्धिः II 3/32; निरोधश्छर्दिविधारणाभ्याम् II 3/33; स्थिरसुखमासनम् II 3/34; स्वकर्म स्वाश्रमविहितकर्मानुष्ठानम् II 3/35; वैराग्यादभ्यासाच्च II 3/36; विपर्ययभेदाः पञ्च II 3/37)
3.38 – In yoga, ignorance (अविद्या, Avidya), Egoism (अस्मिता, Asmita), Passion or desire (राग, Raga), hatred (द्वेष, dwesh) and fear of death (अभिनिवेश, abhinivesh) are described as the bondages which create false knowledge. Transient/temporary, impurity, displeasure/pain and corporal/bodily, are Avidya (as against permanent, purity, happiness and self-wisdom).
(अशक्तिरष्टाविंशतिधा तु II 3/38)
3.39 to 3.43 – There are twenty eight incapacities which are as under:
3.44 to 3.45 – Eight capacities are perfect knowledge which is attained by reasoning (ऊह) due to samskars of previous births, word or oral instructions (शब्द) of scriptures, study or reading (अध्ययन) through acharya, the suppression of three kinds of pain (आध्यात्मिक, आधिभौतिक, आधिदैविक), acquisition of friends (मित्र का मिलना) & liberality (दान करना, by donating wealth). Without reasoning (group of five), mantra etc. elements are not accomplished.
3.46 to 3.73 – Role of Prakriti:
3.74 to 3.85 – wisdom & liberation:
4.1 to 4.13 – Jivatma considers itself bound and on attaining wisdom then he gets liberation (Story of adopted son of Bhil realises himself prince after preaching of minister). By preaching done for one person, another person may also attain moksha (as discourses done by Krishna to Arjuna, one vampire- पिशाच also got liberated). If one does not get wisdom from one time preaching, then preaching should be listened again and again. With wisdom, discrimination between Prakriti and Jivatma comes. Wise person becomes happy on relinquishing desires himself. Anything which is not the means of moksha should not be contemplated (story of Raja Bharat & deer). Acquisition of wisdom should not be done with many people together as it may create obstructions. By abdication of expectations, wise person becomes happy (story of Pingla prostitute). Wise persons are happy in other’s house not having his house. One should get essence of scriptures and from teachers.
(आवृत्तिरसकृदुप-देशात् II 4/3; असाधनानुचिन्तनं बन्धाय भरतवत् II 4/8)
4.14 to 4.21 – Persons in Samadhi are not disturbed who have one pointed attention. Violation of rules prescribed or forgetting them brings failure (story of a king and daughter of frog king). Simply listening of preaching does not accomplish unless meditated upon them (story of prajapati Brahspati & Indra). Politeness, celibacy and service of teacher with devotion for long time bring wisdom. But it is also not necessary to attain wisdom in time bound manner (story of Vamdev attained wisdom in same life due to samskars of previous lives).
(प्रणतिब्रह्मचर्योपसर्पणानि कृत्वा सिद्धिर्बहुकालात्तद्वत् II 4/19)
4.22 to 4.32 – Except attainment of wisdom of self, no other way to escape rebirth. Yajna etc. gets better universe but rebirth takes place to extinguish past karmas. Wise person abdicate karma which should not be done and does such karma which need to be done; just like swan drinks milk only and leaves water. Associating with wise person also help in attaining wisdom. Wise persons should not go in company of those persons who are interested only in worldly joy or passion as there are chances of his falling back into worldly pleasures. Wise person in company of worldly person get attracted and entangled into worldly desires. It is a fact that desires never fulfil till death and wisdom will not arise (story of Sobhri muni). When a person see the faults in desires such as rebirth in various forms, fear of death, pains in birth, unsatisfied desires, then worldly attractions die down. Whose mind is full of attachments, aversions, anger, and hatred etc., wisdom does not sprout (story of rishi Vashisht, Raja aaj and rani indumati). Wisdom does not develop in impure or dirty mind such as in dirty mirror face is not visible. One accomplishes such desire, which he worship. All accomplishments are going to destroy except moksha.
(न कामचारित्वं रागोपहते शुकवत् II 4/25)
5.1 to 5.5 – Maharishi Kapil has explained that it does not mean that one should stop invocations (मंगलाचरण). Wise persons even after attaining wisdom should continue to do virtuous work, yajna, chanting of mantra etc. The fruits are of actions (karmas) and not of invocations. If Parmatma gives special rewards of worship then he shall be like common person. If Parmatma differentiate in fruits of different karmas, then it will require being several gods for respective karmas.
5.6 – 5.19 - Prakriti is material cause. Parmatma is intelligent being/conscious cause. The association of Parmatma and Prakriti is for the purpose of control. Prakriti is not liberated permanently but Parmatma is permanently liberated. Parmatma is not material cause otherwise universe would have attributes of Parmatma and enlightenment. The fact has also been reiterated in Vedas and Upanishads. Ignorance is not possible to be part of Parmatma. Ignorance is not another substance because if it is another substance then it can destroy knowledge. If we consider there is no obstacle for ignorance, then liberation will not be possible. Hence, ignorance is not a substance.
5.20 to 5.27 – Evidences are found for righteousness (धर्म) likewise evidences are found for unrighteousness (अधर्म). Vedas etc. have explained the features of righteousness & unrighteousness. The righteousness & unrighteousness are attributes of internal organ (mind etc.) which is product of Prakriti. Prakriti is with three attributes viz. sattva, rajas and tamas. Without wisdom, righteousness & unrighteousness are not destroyed. Pleasures and pains are experienced by five senses.
5.40 to 5.55 – Vedas are divine and it is sometimes said that these cannot be understood by senses. It is not correct that Vedas cannot be understood by senses as we find evidences of impact of yajnas. The words of Vedas are explained through teacher disciple (गुरु शिष्य) tradition. The teachings of Vedas are proved through evidences. Vedas are not permanent as in Vedas it is mentioned that these are created. Vedas are divine as both liberated and bonded persons are incapable of creating them. Liberated person does not have the power to create it and bonded person does not have such knowledge.
5.56 – Word already exists and it is manifested by pronouncing.
5.57 to 5.64 – Jivatma are many because features of different Jivatmas are different. When Jivatma leaves that person dies and all. Hence, Jivatma are many. Prakriti and Jivatma are also different. But Parmatma is one. Jivatma is not cause of the universe. Jivatma is intelligent but not blissful. Parmatma is omniscient and blissful. After moksha of Jivatma, sorrows go but there is always fear of grief to come back. Hence, Jivatma is not blissful. Moksha is cessation of sorrows.
(नैकस्या-नन्दचिद्रूपत्वे द्वयोर्भेदात् II 5/62)
5.65 – 5.83 - The mind is not comprehensive and permanent. Mind is instrument of senses. Except Prakriti, Jivatma and Parmatma, nothing is permanent. Since Prakriti is not blissful, it cannot be liberated.* Destruction of its three attributes (sattva, rajas & tamas) cannot be liberation as these attributes are natural qualities of Prakriti. Since Jivatma is not blissful, even attainment of Brahman is not liberation. Merging of Jivatma and Parmatma is also not liberation. In the Samadhi, Sushupti and salvation, the Jivatma becomes blissful and Brahman like. Jivatma becomes enlightened. In Samadhi & Sushupti, Jivatma is blissful for short duration but bondage of karma and sufferings remain. In salvation (liberation, Moksha, Mukti), karma, sufferings and desires destroy. When Jivatma experiences bliss for short duration, then it makes efforts for liberation. As in dispassion (वैराग्य) desires weaken, likewise in Sushupti state, sufferings & desires remain and attaining wisdom is not possible.
*(Attainment of eight capacities (अष्ट सिद्धिया) is also not liberation. Getting of any post of deities (Indra etc.) is also not liberation. Knowledge of six substances (Vaishashika) or twenty five substances (Buddhists) cannot be cause of liberation as substances are innumerable. Other than Prakriti and Jivatma, no substance is permanent. Panchbhoot are terrestrial (earth etc.). Ego is cause of senses. Senses are not physical. Creatures are born mainly by six methods - egg, sweat, through ground, resolution-संकल्प, blossom-झिल्लों and resources-mines etc. Earth is cause of all these. Prana is not the executor as it works through senses. When senses are destroyed, prana also destroy. Jivatma is the enjoyer. Without Jivatma, body will be ruined.)
5.84 to 5.88 - There are three kinds of bodies excellent, medium & inferior. Excellent bodies are of sages etc. who are born for karma of penance and for enjoyment. Medium bodies are of ordinary human beings who are born for karma and enjoyment. Inferior bodies are animals, plants etc. who are born for enjoyment. Those who are liberated, they are not having any body. Jivatma is permanent but buddhi etc. is not permanent. Jivatma is not dependent on buddhi. Various capacities (सिद्धि) achieved during Samadhi are valid.
6.1 to 6.4 – Jivatma exists as no proof of its non-existence. Jivatma is different in nature from body, internal organ & senses. Everybody says, this is my body, my buddhi, my mind etc. hence Jivatma is different.
6.5 to 6.8 - Complete cessation of pains lead to moksha. Cessation of pains also includes absence of desires as desires ultimately lead to pain. Can you see anybody full joy and without sorrow all the time. Pleasure and pain both are cyclical. Wise persons know that with pleasure pain also come; hence pleasure is a form of pain.
(तदपि दुःखशबलमिति दुःखपक्षे निःक्षिपन्ते विवेचकाः II 6/8)
6.9 to 6.21 - Moksha is complete cessation of pains and getting bliss. In state of moksha, Jivatma is without attributes. Worldly pleasures interrupt the state of Jivatma. All pleasures and pains are perceived in Jivatma. Such perception creates ignorance. Ignorance is perpetual and constantly keeps generating from chit. But ignorance is not permanent & eternal like darkness which destroys from light. Wisdom destroys ignorance. Ignorance is bondage of Jivatma. In state of moksha, Jivatma is not in bondage. If moksha is also bondage then it shall have no difference from bondage. Moksha is but complete cessation of ignorance.
6.22 to 6.25 - It is not necessary that all the three types of persons (excellent, medium, inferior) will be liberated after listening &, meditating. To get benefit of Samadhi, practice of listening (श्रवण), contemplating (मनन), profound & repeated meditation (निदिध्यासन) etc. is necessary. The sitting posture in which person is stable and happy for long time is correct asana. It is not necessary to be in Padmasana, Mayurasan etc. When mind become without activity (वृत्तिरहित), it is the state of Dhayan (meditation). In dhayan etc. due to absence of anguish, pain etc. Jivatma feels a special state.
(दार्ढ्यार्थमुत्तरेषाम् II 6/23)
6.26 to 6.31 – Though Jivatma is not in association, still due to non-discrimination, it reflects anguish, pain etc. Meditation, holding, practice and dispassion (ध्यान, धारण, अभ्यास, वैराग्य) detain the desires. By disappearance of indulgence (लय) and distraction (विक्षेप), supress desires. Any special place is not prescribed for meditation. Meditation purifies the mind and make faultless.
(ध्यानधारणाभ्यासवैराग्यादि-भिस्तन्निरोधः II 6/29)
6.32 to 6.44 – Prakriti is root of all substances and cause of universe. Because Jivatma does not has three attributes (sattva, rajas and tamas) which belong to Prakriti. These three attributes are consequences/forms not the cause. Prakriti carries out the work of Jivatma and not for herself. When there is equality and inequality in Prakriti, creations and destruction resp. take place. Attaining knowledge about Prakriti that it is not universe, bondage is eliminated and once it is removed, it does not bind again; because Prakriti binds ignorant persons.
6.45 to 6.55 – Pleasure-pain, birth-death etc. conclude that Jivatmas are many. As per advaita, there is only. As dwaita also, Brahman is one only. But because of different attributes in Prakriti and Jivatma, they are different from Brahman. Ego is the executor, not the Jivatma. Mind creates various thoughts and actions are done. Jivatma enlightens the mind. Jivatma ultimately enjoys (pleasure or sadness). So finally, Jivatma is creator and enjoyer.
6.56 – persons who go to different part of universe (other than earth) have to take re-birth as ignorance and desires remain.
6.57 to 6.58 – Simply by listening preaching or reading scriptures, do not lead to moksha. For moksha, listening (श्रवण), contemplating (मनन), profound & repeated meditation (निदिध्यासन) etc. is necessary.
6.59 to 6.70 – Although entire actions of body are reflecting in the Jivatma yet Jivatma are different from body. Without Jivatma, body dies and decays fast despite air, brain etc. remains. As without seed, no plant can grow. Acharya Panchshikh says, Jivatma comes in association of Prakriti due to ignorance. Acharya Sanandan says, subtle body associates Jivatma and Prakriti. Acharya Sankhya says, dissociation and dissolution of association of Jivatma and Prakriti is moksha.
1. Shad Darshanamm by Swami Jagdishwaranand Saraswati, publisher: Vijay kumar Govindram Hasanand, nai Sarak, Delhi-110006.