Patanjali Yoga Darshan –The Practical steps to Bliss & Powers
Yoga Darshan (194 Sutras, 4 chapters) was founded by Rishi Patanjali between the 4th century BC - 2th century AD. Yoga Darshan, one of the six Hindu Philosophies is practical training to attain moksha.
Yoga means joining or union. Yoga Shastra has four areas viz. universe, reason of creation of universe, liberation (moksha) and means of attaining liberation. These four areas are deeply investigated as under:
To get rid of miseries and to attain Kaivalya, eight limbs or parts of yoga are prescribed by rishi Patanjali. The Practice of eight limbs of Yoga leads to destruction of impurity which ultimately leads to light of self-awareness. In the light of self-awareness, Jivatma appears different from mind, buddhi, ego and senses.
The eight parts (of the self-discipline of Yoga) are Yama (Self-restraints, यम), Niyama (observances of rules, नियम), Asana (posture, आसन), Pranayama (regulation of breath, प्राणायाम), Pratyhara (abstraction, प्रत्याहार), Dharna (concentration, धारणा), Dhyana (meditation, ध्यान), Samadhi (trance, समाधि). (यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयोऽष्टावअङ्गानि 2/29). Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama and Pratyhara are external limbs and Dharna, Dhyana & Samadhi are internal limb. Dharna, Dhyana & Samadhi is external limb of Asamprajaatah Samadhi (seedless Samadhi). The details are as under:
The detailed explanations, chapter wise and verse-wise are as under:
Chapter – 1 – What is Yoga:-
1.2 – Yoga is the technique to control the mind from distractions and modifications. Mind has five states viz. highly agitated, distracted due to rajas (क्षेप), infatuated, fascinated due to tamas (मौढय), waving, moving due to sattva, able to be steady (विक्षेप), steady due to pure sattva (एकाग्र), and restraint, prevention & destruction (निरोध) & focussed, due to pure sattva. (योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः|| 1/2)
1.3 to 1.6 - When the mind become restraint from all distractions and completely steady, Jivatma (inner self, soul) stays with Parmatma (cosmic consciousness, almighty). Other than in last two states, Jivatma identifies itself with modified mind i.e. pleasure-pain, profit-loss, respect-insult etc. Modifications (particular state) of mind (वृत्तियों) are fivefold viz. direct knowledge, false knowledge, imagination, sleep & memory (प्रमाण, विपर्यय, विकल्प, निद्रा, स्मृति). These modifications are of type’s viz. painful/disturbed (क्लिष्ट) and undisturbed (अक्लिष्ट). Rajas and tamas distractions (attachments, aversions etc.) bind the self and are painful. Undisturbed mind is without pain & suffering and leads to liberation. (तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम् | 1/3)
1.7 to 1.12 – True knowledge (प्रमाणवृत्ति) is attained by (a) Direct perception through senses (b) Inference through intellect (c) Verbal testimony through scriptures. False knowledge (विपर्ययवृत्ति) or delusion or wrong understanding is cause of all disasters/perversions. Verbal Knowledge (विकल्प वृत्ति) attained through listening or reading which create doubts & devoid of any substantial reality. During state of awaking or dreaming, when tamas covers sattva and rajas, mind feels deficient; such state of mind is sleep state (निद्रा वृत्ति). Memory (स्मृति वृत्ति) is the recollection of past experiences. The above five modifications in the mind (चित्त वृत्तियों) can be controlled by means of practice, suppression and dispassion (वैराग्य, renunciation, detachment).
1.13 to 1.14 – Practice of eight limbs of yoga and dispassion is for holding mind from external attractions and to bring stability in mind. When the practice is done continuously, for a long period i.e. till death, without mistakes and with faith (celibacy, dispassion, tenacity, penance and devotion), mind firmly stabilizes. (तत्र स्थितौ यत्नोऽभ्यासः ||1/13) (स तु दीर्घकालनैरन्तर्यसत्कारासेवितो दृढभूमिः || 1/14)
1.15 to 1.16 - Detachment from worldly desires and body is called apar dispassion (अपरवैराग्य). Unseen dispassion has four stages viz. present (यतमान, attempts to leave desires but not very successful), exclusion (व्यतिरेक, some desires eliminate), one organ remains (एकेन्द्रिय, detached from senses but mind remains) and subjugating (वशीकार, mind and all senses under control). In apar dispassion, the rajas and tamas modifications of mind are eliminated. In Par dispassion (परवैराग्य), there is quietness, complete detachment from worldly desires and presence of Jivatma is felt. (दृष्टानुश्रविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसंज्ञा वैराग्यम् ||1/15) (तत्परं पुरुषख्यातेर्गुणवैतृष्ण्यम् || 1/16)
1.17 to 1.23 – Types of Samadhi and its attainment:
· Samprajaatah Samadhi or Samadhi with consciousness (सम्प्रज्ञातसमाधि) is attained in association of destruction of reasoning or argumentation (वितर्क) of natural substances or desires, deliberations (विचार) about parmatma (supreme consciousness), having bliss (आनन्द) in thinking attributes of parmatma and having sense of pure being (अस्मिता).
· Through incessant practice; absence of argumentation, deliberations, etc.; and through Par dispassion, one attains Asamprajaatah (असम्प्रज्ञात, निर्बीज, निर्विकल्प) Samadhi or Samadhi with self-realisation; in which except Jivatma & Parmatma, nothing left.
· Those who become totally detached from bodily enjoyments and have dissolved the mahat, ego and tanmantras, attain the Bhav Pratyaay (भवप्रत्यय) state of concentration. Such persons automatically get Samadhi in next birth without any effort or renunciation on their part. But those who have not undergone the above practices will require devotion, energy, memory, Samadhi and intelligence (उपायप्रत्यय - श्रद्धा से वीर्य्य, वीर्य्य से स्मृति, स्मृति से समाधि, समाधि से प्रज्ञा और प्रज्ञा से परवैराग्य तथा परवैराग्य से असम्प्रज्ञात समाधि).
· Those who have intense dispassion and practice, they attain Samadhi fast. The intensity is of three types viz. mild, moderate and powerful. By the powerful combination of both, intensity and practices with devotion, energy, intelligence etc., yogi attains Samadhi fast. This combination based on degree of intensity and the practices, are of nine types (मृदुपायमृदुसंवेग, मृदुपायमध्यसंवेग, मृदुपायाधिमात्रसंवेग, मध्योपायमृदुसंवेग, मध्योपायमध्यसंवेग, मध्योपायाधिमात्रसंवेग, अधिमांत्रोपायमृदुसंवेग, अधिमात्रोपायमध्यसंवेग, अधिमात्रोपायाधिमात्रसंवेग).
· Self-surrender to Parmatma is another way to get Samadhi fast.
(वितर्कविचारानन्दास्मितारूपानुगमात् संप्रज्ञातः ||1/17) (विरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूर्वः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः || 1/18) (भवप्रत्ययो विदेहप्रकृतिलयानाम् || 1/19) (ईश्वरप्रणिधानाद् वा || 1/23)
1.24 – There are five afflictions/sufferings (क्लेश) viz. ignorance (अविद्या, lack of awareness), pride (अस्मिता, I-am-ness), passion/attractions (राग), hatred/dislikes (द्वेष) & persistence (अभिनिवश, clinging to life, and fear of death) and two types of actions viz. virtuous & evil. The results of actions called vipak (विपाक) are birth in different type of living being (जाति), age (आयु) and enjoyments (भोग). Parmatma is devoid of afflictions of life, actions and the results and impressions produced by these actions.
1.25 to 1.29 – Parmatma is highest limit of omniscience. He is omnipotent i.e. with unlimited power. He is eternal, teacher of ancient rishis, father of Brhma, Vishnu & Mahesh and preacher of Vedas. The true indicator of Parmatma is “AUM”. Fixing attention on Parmatma and constantly repeating AUM during Samadhi realises Parmatma and all obstructions are eliminated. The sequence is (1) worship of Parmatma, (2) elimination of all obstructions; (3) Samprajaatah Samadhi (4) appearance of wisdom, (5) dispassion (वैराग्य) develops, (6) Asamprajaatah Samadhi, (7) light of Parmatma, (8) Kaivalya (कैवल्य=मोक्ष). (तस्य वाचकः प्रणवः || 1/27) (तज्जपस्तदर्थभावनम् ||1/28) (ततः प्रत्यक्चेतनाधिगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभावश्च || 1/29)
1.30 to 1.32 – Diseases (व्याधि), languor or lethargy (स्त्यान), doubt (संशय), carelessness/indiscipline (प्रमाद), laziness (आलस्य), worldly-mindedness (अविरित), delusion (भ्रान्तिदर्शन), non-achievement of a stage (अलब्धभूमिकत्व), instability (अनवस्थितत्व), are the nine causes of the distraction of the mind (चित्तविक्षेप) and they are the obstacles. Pain (दुःख, आध्यात्मिक, आधिभौतिक और आधिदैविक); despair, depression, etc. (दौर्मनस्य, caused due non fulfilment of desires); nervousness (अड़गमेजयत्व) and difficulty in exhaling (श्वास) and inhaling (प्रश्वास) are associates of a distracted mind. To remove these obstacles, one should constantly worship of Parmatma.
1.33 – Clarity of mind is achieved by attitudes of friendliness (मित्रता), compassion (दया, करुणा), gladness (हर्ष) and indifference (उदासीनता) respectively towards happy persons, miserable persons, virtuous persons and vicious persons and anger, jealousy etc. wash away.
1.34 to 1.40 - Stability in mind is achieved by doing alom-vilom pranayama (आलोम-विलोम प्राणायाम) in which systematic breathing is done i.e. inhalation is done slowly (पूरक), breath is held inside (अन्त: कुम्भक), exhalation is done slowly (रेचक); breath is held outside (वाहृाकुम्भक). Steadiness of mind is achieved by dharna, dhyana & Samadhi. When mind is fixed in front part of nose, in front part of tongue, middle part of tongue, palate and hind part of tongue, it develops tendencies of smell, taste, word, form and touch. If mind is free from attachment, aversions or miseries and have sattva tendency, it stabilises. By acquiring knowledge about the states of mind i.e. dream state and deep sleep state also, mind stabilises. Or mind can be fixed on lotus of heart, naval, ajna chakra or any external object. To make mind steady, from atom to gross substances can be fixed as desired.
1.41 to 1.46 – when distractions/modifications of mind (चित्तवृत्तिया) are fully destroyed, entire absorption in one another of the cognizer (Jivatma), cognition (internal organ & senses) and cognized (panchbhoot and their attributes) is brought about as in the case of a transparent jewel. This state is called Samprajaatah Samadhi or Samadhi with consciousness (सम्प्रज्ञातसमाधि). Samprajaatah Samadhi is of four type’s viz. Savitarka Samadhi, Nirvitarka Samadhi, Savichar Samadhi and Nirvichar Samadhi.
1.47 to 1.51 - On attaining excellence in Nirvichar Samadhi, one becomes pure and witness Brahman and becomes above pains of death. Such yogi attains adhyatam prasad or Pragyalok or Pragya Prasad and his/her consciousness bear truth. The knowledge based on inference (through objects, अनुमानप्रज्ञा; through words, शब्दप्रज्ञा) is different from wisdom (ऋतंभरा प्रज्ञा) obtained in the higher states of consciousness. The impressions (संस्कार) produced by wisdom (direct knowledge) eliminates other impressions. On suppression of impressions produced by the wisdom, Asamprajaatah (असम्प्रज्ञात, निर्बीज, निर्विकल्प, seedless) Samadhi is attained. In this stage, all desires, ignorance, afflictions, sufferings, impressions etc. retire (निवृत्त). As per Mandukya Upanishad (2.2.3), such wise person attains moksha who is devoid of ignorance, retired all afflictions/sufferings (क्लेश), impressions etc., enlightened by Vedas & self (Brahman) and sees almighty.
Chapter – 2 –Means of Yoga:-
2.1 – Austerity (तप), study which leads to knowledge of self (स्वाघ्याय), and surrender to Brahman/Ishwar (ईश्वरप्रणिधान) constitute preliminary Yoga. Austerity means endurance of pleasure-pain, cold-hot etc. and taking healthy & limited food. Study of Vedas, Upanishads, etc. scriptures are means of attaining knowledge. Self-less actions/ activities/working as per guided in Vedas and surrendering them to Brahman/Iswar is Ishwarpanidhan. These three are called Kriya yoga. (तपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि क्रियायोगः ||2/1)
2.2 to 2.4 – Kriya Yoga weakens the five sufferings/afflictions (explained at 1.24) and brings Samadhi. These sufferings (klesh) are in four stages viz. sufferings are sleeping in seed form (प्रसुप्त); sufferings are in subtle form due to Kriya Yoga (तनु); sufferings are pressed by other sufferings and surface occasionally (विच्छिन्न) and sufferings which are surfacing along with desires (उदार). The main source of sufferings is ignorance. (समाधिभावनार्थः क्लेशतनूकरणार्थश्च ||2/2) (अविद्यास्मितारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशाः क्लेशाः ||2/3)
2.5 – To see permanent (Ishwar) into temporary (body etc.), pure (pure mind, Dharma, association of truth etc.) into impure body & mind, expecting pleasure (satisfaction etc.) from evils (anger, jealous, attachments etc.) and eternal (Jivatma) into non-eternal (Prakriti), is ignorance.
2.6 to 2.11 – Not to differentiate among cognizer (Brahman) and power of cognition (Buddhi) is called Asmita. The attraction which continues even after enjoyment is called attachment and even after experiencing suffering, impression of hatred remains which is dwash. Strong desire of life and fear of death is abhinivesh. These four klasha are made subtle by seedless Samadhi and return to their origin. Their gross subsistence (वृत्ति) is destroyed by meditation.
2.12 – The reservoir of karmas (actions, deeds) which is called Karmashya (कर्माशय) has root in five afflictions/sufferings (क्लेश, Kalesh). The accumulated karmas (संचित कर्म) are enjoyed / suffered during present life or coming life. Hence, there is continuous flow of pleasure and pain till the karmas are extinguished. Good karmas are produced by japa, austerity, Samadhi and service to society and bad karmas are produced by maleficence, mischief, injury to others etc. (क्लेशमूलः कर्माशयो दृष्टादृष्टजन्मवेदनीयः ||2/12)
2.13 to 2.14 –The fruit of kalesh is the re-birth cycle in form of different type of living being (जाति, plants, animals, birds, human beings etc.), age (आयु) and enjoyments/sufferings (भोग, pleasures & pains). This is called karma vipak (कर्मविपाक). If kalesh are exhausted and no new kalesh is produced, no karma vipak remains and hence no re-birth. Virtues produce good karma and vices produce bad karma. (सति मूले तद्विपाको जात्यायुर्भोगाः ||2/13) (ते ह्लादपरितापफलाः पुण्यापुण्यहेतुत्वात् ||2/14)
2.15 – The miseries are of three kind’s viz. Resulted misery (परिणामदुःख), heat distress (तापदुःख) and impression misery (संस्कारदुःख). The person performs good or bad karmas and suffers birth after birth is resulted misery. When the person feels deficiencies in comforts and due to which develops anger, malice, greed, attachments etc. Under the influence of malicious tendencies, he suffers heat distress. Experience of sensual pleasures creates impressions, impressions create memory of pleasures, memory of pleasures creates attachments to it, and attachments inspire to do good or bad karmas/actions which accumulate karmas leading to re-births. This is impression misery. Hence, both good and bad karmas result ultimately into misery. (परिणामतापसंस्कारदुःखैर्गुणवृत्तिविरोधाच् च दुःखम् एव सर्वं विवेकिनः ||2/15)
2.16 – The past misery is extinguished and present misery is causing sufferings. It is better to avoid future misery and for that one should make efforts. (हेयं दुःखम् अनागतम् ||2/16)
2.17 – Jivatma is seer (witness, द्रष्टा), Prakriti is seen (दृश्य) through senses, mind and ego. The association of seer and seen, is cause of enjoyment/sufferings and needs to be avoided.
2.18 – Whose nature is light (sattva), activities (rajas) and darkness/inactivity/immobility (tamas), whose form is of five macro elements, five subtle elements, five organs of senses and five organs of actions, whose purpose is to attain moksha and who are for experience for Jivatma that is Prakriti, seen.
2.19 to 2.26 - The stages of the attributes are twenty four viz.particular (विशेष, 16-panchbhoot, five organs of senses, five organs of actions and mind), the universal (अविशेष, 6-five subtle elements and ego), the differentiated (लिड्डमात्र, mahat/buddhi) and the undifferentiated (अलिड्ड, Prakriti). The Seer or Jivatma is pure consciousness but though pure, appears to see through the buddhi. “seen” is for the sake of “seer”. “Seen” is destroyed for the “seer” who has attains moksha through wisdom but “Seen” continue to exist for others. Jivatma (Prursha, स्वामिशक्ति) and Prakriti (स्वशक्ति) come together to be aware of true nature and to unfold of powers inherent in them. They come together due to ignorance. Through wisdom, ignorance is destroyed. Destruction of ignorance eliminates the contact of Jivatma and Prakriti which miseries. This is Kavilya (moksha). The pure, steady and uninterrupted practice of the awareness / wisdom of pure consciousness are the means of dispersion (of Avidya, ignorance). (विशेषाविशेषलिङ्गमात्रालिङ्गानि गुणपर्वाणि || 2/19) (तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्यात्मा || 2/21)
2.27 – The awareness / wisdom of pure consciousness (Brahman) has seven stages as under:
2.28 – Practice of eight limbs of Yoga leads to destruction of impurity which ultimately leads to light of self-awareness. In the light of self-awareness, Jivatma appears different from mind, buddhi, ego and senses. (योगाङ्गानुष्ठानाद् अशुद्धिक्षये ज्ञानदीप्तिरा विवेकख्यातेः || 2/28)
2.29 – 2.32 – The eight parts (of the self-discipline of Yoga) are as under:
2.33 to 2.34 – When mind does not follow Yama:
2.46 to 2.48 – Siddhasana (सिद्धासन), Padmasana (पद्मासन), Veerasana (वीरासन), Bhadrasana (भद्रासन), swastikasana (स्वस्तिकासन) are many asana. The asana which make sitting stable and comfortable can be done. By relinquishment of all efforts and meditation, asna is mastered. When asna is mastered, hunger-thirst, hot-cold etc. do not interfere.
2.49 to 2.52 – After asna are mastered, then pranayama is done. In Pranayama, inhalation is done (पूरक), breath is held inside (अन्त: कुम्भक), exhalation is done (रेचक); breath is held outside (वाहृाकुम्भक). In kumbhak pranayama, breath is freeze inside. Based on length of pranayama at place (heart or brain), time period and count, it is said to be long or short. Fourth kind of pranayama is when breath is exhaling, pranayama forces breath from exhaling or when breath is inhaling, pranayama forces breath from inhaling. Fourth kind of pranayama happens automatically when external and internal distractions are abandoned. By practice of pranayama, covering of light is dissolved. (ततः क्षीयते प्रकाशावरणम् || 2/52)
2.53 – When pranayama is mastered, mind become stable & eligible for Dharna (concentration). (धारणासु च योग्यता मनसः ||2/53)
2.54 to 2.55 – By practice of pranayama, senses withdraw themselves from their objects (natural tendencies) and mind turn inward. This state is called Pratyahara. By mastering pratyahara, yogi wins over senses. (स्वस्वविषयासंप्रयोगे चित्तस्य स्वरूपानुकार इवेन्द्रियाणां प्रत्याहारः || 2/54)
Chapter -3 - Powers and Greatness of Yoga:-
3.1 – When mind become stable at one object (external or internal object say ajna chakra, lotus of heart, naval etc.), this state is Dharna.
3.2 – During Dharna, when uninterrupted flow of mind (thoughts) is towards the object chosen, this state is Dhayna. During Dhayna, mind is focused but presence of meditator, meditation and object (ध्याता, ध्यान, ध्येय) is held.
3.3 – During Dhayna, when the consciousness about him/her is lost and only object remain, this state is called Samadhi.
3.4 to 3.8 – When Dharna, Dhayna & Samadhi are done on one object, this called Samyama (संयम). When Samyama is mastered, divine wisdom/light is attained. The Samyama may be stage wise viz. Savitarka Samadhi, Nirvitarka Samadhi, Savichar Samadhi and Nirvichar Samadhi (explained at 1.41.to 146). Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama and Pratyhara are external limbs and Dharna, Dhyana & Samadhi are internal limb. Dharna, Dhyana & Samadhi is external limb of Asamprajaatah Samadhi (seedless Samadhi). (त्रयम् एकत्र संयमः ||3/4) (तज्जयात् प्रज्ञाऽऽलोकः ||3/5)
3.9 to 3.11 – During Asamprajaatah Samadhi, divergent impressions (व्युत्थान संस्कारों) are decayed and restraint impressions (निरोधसंस्कारों) are upraised and mind becomes tranquil (निरोध). This transformation is called restraint transformation (nirodh parinama, निरोधपरिणाम). By constant practice, divergent impressions/distractions will not rise; nirodh sanskars will flow and mind attain tranquillity (peace). Decay of distractions and attainment of one pointedness and single focus, Samadhi takes place.
3.12 – The state of mind in which object appears, disappears in next moment and again appears, continuous flow of them is called single pointed transformation (Ekaagrataa Parinaama, एकाग्रतापरिणाम).
3.13 to 3.15 – The property transformation (धर्मपरिणाम), character transformation (लक्षणपरिणाम) and condition transformation (अवस्थापरिणाम) in panchbhoots and the sense-organs need to be understood.
3.16 to 3.33 - By performing Samyana on various objects, one attains different intuitive perceptions or powers as under:
3.34 – Buddhi and Jivatma are two different. By Samyama on Jivatma (self-interest), awareness of form of Jivatma is done and on Buddhi, knowledge of Prakriti is done. (सत्त्वपुरुषयोरत्यन्तासंकीर्णयोः प्रत्ययाविशेषो भोगः परार्थत्वात् स्वार्थसंयमात् पुरुषज्ञानम् ||3/34)
3.35 to 3.36 –Awareness of Jivatma produces knowledge of subtle (सूक्ष्म), concealed (व्यवहित) and distant (विप्रकृष्ट) by the intuitive power (प्रातिभ) of mind, divine powers of auditory/hearing, tactile/touch, visual/sight, gustatory/taste and olfactory/smell. These capacities are obstacles and powers when mind turn outward.
3.37 – In this body, Jivatma is in bondage karmas undertaken (प्रारब्ध कर्म). Yogis who have relaxed the bondage of karmas and have developed full knowledge of passages of mind through which it can go out & come in, their Jivatma can enter into another body.
3.38 to 3.39 –Prana has five parts viz. prana-from nose to heart, samana-from heart to naval, apana-naval to sole of foot, udana-nose to head and vyana-entire body (प्राण, समान, अपान, उदान, व्यान). By Samyama on samana and Udana, yogi becomes radiant & magnificent like fire and mastery of moving on water, mire thorns etc. without contact & power of moving upward by Jivatma respectively.
3.40 to 3.41 – By Samyama on the relation of ear and akasha, divine words are heard. By Samyama on the relation of body and akasha or light weight like cotton, divine power of flying in space is achieved.
3.42 – when yogi constantly practices Yama, Niyama etc., mind becomes pure. Buddhi is covered with attributes of sattva, rajas and tamas. When rajas and tamas attributes decay and sattva attribute firms, by Samyama, yogi attains bodylessness (mahavideha, महाविदेहा धारणा) Dharna and afflictions etc. destroys & gets bliss.
3.43 to 3.45 – By Samyama on gross, form, subtle, all-pervading and functional states, yogi masters the panchbhoot. This develops eight capacities viz. to be thin (अणिमा), to be light (लघिमा), to be majestic (महिमा), to achieve all substances (प्राप्ति), to develop wilfulness (प्राकाम्य), to master oneself (वशित्व), to master living beings (ईशितृत्व) तथा to determine truth (यत्रकामावसायित्व) and non-obstructions of functions of the body. The perfection of the body viz. Beauty, fine complexion, strength and adamantine hardness is attained by such yogi.
3.46 to 3.47 - By Samyama over the five states of sense organs viz. power of cognition (ग्रहण), real nature (स्वरूप), egoism (अस्मिता), all-pervasiveness (अन्वय) and functions (अर्थवत्त्व), the yogi masters over sense organs so that these senses turn him inward. Such yogi attains three capacities of sense organs viz. speed like mind (मनोजवित्व), condition of being independent of instruments (विकरणभाव) and conquest of Pradhaana / Prakriti (प्रधानजय).
3.48 – By constant practice of Samprajaatah Samadhi, yogi attains awareness of distinction between sattva (refined buddhi) and Jivatma which develops supremacy over all states and forms of existence (omnipotence, सर्वभावाघिष्ठातृत्व) and knowledge of everything (omniscience, सर्वभावज्ञातृत्व).
3.49 – Asceticism (Non attachment, वैराग्य) to the aforesaid capacities, the seed of bondage is destroyed. When the mind remains for long time as non-attached, the impressions which generate five afflictions (पांच क्लेशों, ignorance etc.) decay which lead to Kaivalya (moksha). (तद्वैराग्यादपि दोषबीजक्षये कैवल्यम् || 3/49).
3.50 – Such yogi should avoid hospitality of people/entities for pleasure and pride of being invited or revered by them because there is the possibility of the revival of evil.
3.51 to 3.53 – Wisdom/awareness of reality is transcendent (excellent) and develops without preaching but by intuition. Wisdom rises by Samyama on the shortest of moment & on its succession. This wisdom includes the cognition of all objects simultaneously, pertains to all objects & processes whatsoever in all the times (past, present and future) & space and also transcends the World Process (succession less). This wisdom makes visible the distinctions of two similar substances which cannot be distinguished by class, characteristics or positions.
3.54 – Kaivalya is attained by rise of wisdom of reality and Buddhi and Jivatma become equally pure. (सत्त्वपुरुषयोः शुद्धिसाम्ये कैवल्यम् इति)
Chapter – 4 – Kaivalya:-
4.1 – Yogi attains divine capacities by birth (sharp intellect), nutritious drugs, mantra (constant repetition of certain group of words), austerity (purification actions, penance) and Samadhi (trance). (जन्मओषधिमन्त्रतपस्समाधिजाः सिद्धयः ॥4/1)
4.2 - The transformation from one species or kind into another is by the overflow of natural tendencies or potentialities.
4.3 - The nutritious drugs etc. are incidental cause and do not stir up the natural tendencies into activity; it merely removes the obstacles, like a farmer (irrigating a field).
4.4 to 4.5 – Ego creates different kind of minds say sattva mind, rajas mind and tamas mind.
4.6 – By meditation, the mind becomes free from impressions. (तत्र ध्यानजमनाशयम् ॥4/6).
4.7 to 4.10 – Karmas (actions/activities) have three kind of tendencies viz. shukl (शुक्ल, sattvic – austerity, self-study, Samadhi etc.); Krishan (कृष्ण, Tamsic- lower end sensual pleasures) & shukl-krishan (शुक्लकृष्ण, Rajasic- Karmas for self-gratification and profit, Yajna etc.). Yogis who are free from five afflictions (क्लेश) and attachments of karmas, their karmas are neither good nor bad (none of the three - shukl, krishan, shukl-krishan). These tendencies are manifested when the conditions are favourable. The separation by class, place and time, does not make impact on impressions of karmas. These desires are continuous
4.11 – Desires are gathering due to klesha (ignorance etc.) & karmas; fruits (class, age and enjoyments/sufferings); shelter (mind & memory) and causes (आलम्बन, senses). Absence of these four result into absence of desires. (हेतुफलाश्रयालम्बनैःसंगृहीतत्वातेषामभावेतदभावः ॥॥4/11)
4.12 to 4.23 – Ignorance, desires etc. are tendencies of mind which exist in past as well as in future times as different forms and not destroy. These tendencies manifest in present times and exist in subtle form in past and future. Prakriti produces panchbhoots, senses, ego etc. but retains its three attributes (sattva, rajas & tamas). The essence of the object consists in the uniqueness of transformation (of the attributes). Object and its cognition are different due to separate path. The object appears or disappears in mind. The modifications of the mind are always known to its Jivatma as it is changeless. Jivatma is self-luminous and mind is inert. It is not possible to know both perceived (object) and perceiver (mind) at a same time. Jivatma is inert & independent, still it perceives mind. Mind in its own self is receptive (receiver, perceiver), in combination of object is cosmic (perception, picture) and in combination of Jivatma is carrier (sight, darshan).
4.24 – Mind has innumerable desires but reflects in three attributes (sattva, rajas & tamas gunas). (तदसङ्ख्येय वासनाभिः चित्रमपि परार्थम् संहत्यकारित्वात् ॥4/24)
4.25 – By the cessation (of desire) and distinction between mind & Jivatma is identified through arise of wisdom. (विशेषदर्शिनः आत्मभावभावनानिवृत्तिः॥4/25)
4.26 – Due to ignorance, mind moves toward desires. On rise of wisdom, the mind is inclined towards discrimination and gravitating towards Kaivalya. (तदा विवेकनिम्नं कैवल्यप्राग्भारं चित्तम् ॥4/26)
4.27 – Even after attainment of wisdom, the decaying impressions are present in seed form. (तच्छिद्रेषु प्रत्ययान्तराणि संस्कारेभ्यः ॥ 4/27)
4.28 – The ignorance, etc. afflictions (klesha) are destroyed due to rise of wisdom. (हानमेषां क्लेशवदुक्तम् ॥ 4/28)
4.29 to 4.31 – If yogi is able to maintain no desire of fruits and constant state of dispassion (वैराग्य) even towards the most exalted state of enlightenment (rise of wisdom), follows Dharma-Megha-Samaadhi (धर्ममेघ समाधि) which is highest state of Samprajaatah Samadhi. This destroys all afflictions (klesha). After the removal of all obscuration and impurities, that which can be known (through the mind) is but little in comparison with the infinity of knowledge (obtained in Enlightenment). (प्रसंख्यानेऽप्यकुसीदस्य सर्वथा विवेकख्यातेः धर्ममेघस्समाधिः ॥ 4/29) (ततः क्लेशकर्मनिवृत्तिः ॥ 4/30) (तदा सर्वावरणमलापेतस्य ज्ञानस्यानन्त्यात् ज्ञेयमल्पम् ॥ 4/31)
4.32 – After attainment of wisdom (enlightenment), the growth of three attributes of prakriti get completed. In living state also, yogi is not affected by these attributes. (ततः कृतार्थानं परिणामक्रमसमाप्तिर्गुणानाम् ॥ 4/32)
4.33 - The process, corresponding to moments which become apprehensible at the final end of transformation (of the Gunas), is Kramah (क्रम).
4.34 - Kaivalya is the state (of Enlightenment) following re-mergence of the attributes of Prakriti into it. In this state the Jivatma is established in his Real nature which is pure consciousness. (पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानांप्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति ॥ 4/34)
1. Shad Darshanamm by Swami Jagdishwaranand Saraswati, publisher: Vijay kumar Govindram Hasanand, nai Sarak, Delhi-110006.