Saint Ashtavakra, the revered Vedic sage of Hinduism, explained the attributes of ignorant person and liberated or mukt person during the dialogue with King Janaka of Mithila Kingdom.
People are of four kinds viz. wise, seeker, ignorant and idiot. Idiot is one who enjoys bodily actions. Ignorant has spiritual knowledge but no inclination for liberation. Seeker is interested in liberation. Wise person is already attained wisdom of liberation.
Dull or ignorant assumes renunciation of wealth, house, kingdom, home etc. is asceticism. Offerings made in temples, pittance given to beggars or poor etc. are not renunciation. Whereas enlightened person resides in jivatma and drops all worldly desires. He is neither passionate nor renunciant.
Saint Ashtavakra explained the following characteristics of ignorant person and realized person:
Enlightened or Realised or liberated Person:
Ashtavakra Gita – the Enlightenment or Spiritual Wisdom
This universe has two perpetual powers i.e. spiritual wisdom and ignorance. Ignorance is for world and spiritual wisdom is for bliss. Ignorance takes the person away from jivatma and spiritual wisdom brings him closer to jivatma. Truthfulness, love, purity, uprightness, renunciation, dispassion, compassion, mercy etc. feelings are immortality.
Jivatma is not away in heaven or in Himalaya or temples but inside everybody which needs to be experienced. Jivatma is pure, serene, infallible (without defect) and not wavering. But due to clouds of thoughts and desires, jivatma cannot be seen. By clearing distractions, thoughts and desires from mind, enlightened person see the truth. He becomes observer, witness. World is based on imaginations, good or bad. All imaginations are in mind. Once curtain is lifted from mind, world appears different. Now the person can see jivatma which is unbound and free.
Realisation or experience of Jivatma (soul, self) is the spiritual wisdom, rest are information gathered from outside. Spiritual wisdom is beyond intellect and cannot be understood from books or scriptures. Intellect cannot provide solutions to different belief-systems and opinions. Hence, person aspiring for spiritual wisdom should avoid them. Just believing that jivatma is unchangeable, eternal and pure is not sufficient, realizing is necessary.
Enlightenment or Spiritual Wisdom;
Eligibility for Spiritual Wisdom:
Ascent of Spiritual Wisdom:
Ancient Texts in Hinduism
Vastness, language barrier and lack of proper documentation of Scriptures in Snatana Dharma have been enigmatic to everybody including Hindus. The purpose of this article is provide bird view to the ancient texts in Hinduism so that one can realise the incredible knowledge available and advances made by the ancient Hindu Scientists, commonly called as Rishis.
The ancient texts of Hinduism may represent in form of a Dharam tree. The Roots of the tree are Truthfulness, Austerity, Selfless duty and Charity (Daan); the Trunk of the tree is four Vedas; the Branches of the tree are Vedang, Upvedas, Yogmarg, Mantras and Shastras; the Leaves are Puranas; the Flowers are stories of Rama & Krishna and the Fruits are Festivals, Sanskars, Arts, Music, Dance, Science etc.
The ancient knowledge was transmitted through Guru-Shishyia (Teacher-Student) tradition verbally. Texts which are heard are called as Shruti and texts which are remembered, are called as Smirti. Vedas are Shruti. Shruti means the divine messages heard by great seers. Vedas were revealed to the ancient sages by the Supreme Being through his divine powers namely Agni, Vayu, Aditiya and Angira. Rigveda through Agni, Yajurveda through Vayu, Samveda through Aditya or surya and Atharvaveda through Angira (Atharva). Each Veda has three portions: Samhita (mantra portion and hymns); Brahmanas (ritual portion); and Aranyaka (spiritual philosophy) besides Upanishads. Smritis include Dharma Sastras (8), Itihasa, Purana (18) and Vedangas (6). Mahrishi Veda Vayas compiled the Vedas around 5000 years ago.
Upanishads are part of Vedas are commonly referred to as Vedanta i.e. last chapters or the highest purpose of the Vedas. The Upanishad (upa – near, ni – down, sad – sit) means sitting down of disciple near spiritual guru. Total Upanishads are 108, out of which principal Upanishads are 11. They elaborate on how the soul (Atman) can be united with the ultimate truth (Brahman) through contemplation and mediation, as well as the doctrine of Karma i.e. the cumulative effects of a person’s actions.
Vedangas (limbs of Vedic Studies):
Brahmanas, Aranyaka and Upanishads fall under this category.
Sutras are collection of syllables and words in shorthand, containing rules & directions with which the teachings of ritual, philosophy, grammar, or any field of knowledge can be woven. A collection of sutras becomes a text. A sutra is different from other components such as Shlokas, Anuvyakhayas and Vyakhyas found in ancient Hindu literature. A Shloka is a verse that conveys the complete message and is structured to certain rules of musical meter; an Anuvyakhaya is an explanation of the reviewed text, while a Vyakhya is a comment by the reviewer. Sutras first appear in the Brahmana and Aranyaka layer of Vedic literature.
The compendium of ancient Vedic sutra literature that has survived, in full or fragments includes the Kalpa Sutras, Smarta Sutras, Srauta Sutras, Dharma Sutras, Grhya Sutras, and Sulba Sutras. Sutras of Hindu philosophy include Samkhya Sutras, Yoga Sutras, Nyaya Sutras, Vaisesika Sutras, Dharma Sutras and Brahma Sutras.
These are six in number viz. Nyaya Darshan, Vaisheshika Darshan, Astang Yog Darshan, Samkhya Darshan, Poorva Mimansa and Uttar Mimansa. (Articles of these are already published in this website under the category of Philosophy)
To guide the society, various rishis (scientists) have written their opinions, known as smiritis. These contain rules aimed at inspiring the people towards their duties and maintain peace and order. These are sixteen in number viz. Manu, Yajnavalkya, Parashara, Apastamba, Gautama, Vishnu, Daksha, Samvarta, Vyasa, Harita, Satatapa, Vasishtha, Yama, Devala, Sankha-Likhita, Usana, Atri and Saunaka.
'Purana means old times texts. The purpose of Purans is to transfer Vedic knowledge to the coming generations in simple language. The Puranas are post-Vedic texts which typically contain a complete narrative of the history of the Universe from creation to destruction, genealogies of the kings, heroes and demigods, and descriptions of Hindu cosmology and geography. There are 18 Puranas, divided into three categories, each named after a deity: Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. There are also many other works termed Purana, known as 'Upapuranas. The Puranas satisfy our popular cravings, by catering to our physical, moral or spiritual needs.
There are 18 Mahapuranas and an equal number of subsidiary Puranas or Upa-Puranas and many 'sthala' or regional Puranas. Of the 18 major texts, six glorify Vishnu; six glorify Brahma; and six glorify Shiva viz. Vaishnava aspects - Vishnu Purana, Naradiya Purana, Bhagavat Purana, Garuda Purana, Padma Purana, Varaha Purana; Brahma as central deity - Brahma Purana, Brahmanda Purana, Brahma-Vaivarta Purana, Markandeya Purana, Bhavishya Purana, Vamana Purana; Shaivite aspects - Matsya Purana, Kurma Purana, Linga Purana, Shiva Purana, Skanda Purana and Agni Purana.
The Puranas provide insight into the aspects of idol-worship, festivals and devotions.
The Mahabharata (containing the Bhagavad Gita) and Ramayana are the national epics. The Mahabharata, attributed to the sage Vyasa, was written down from 540 to 300 B.C. The Bhagavad Gita, a philosophical dialogue between the Shree Krishna and the Arjuna. The Gita discusses selflessness, duty, devotion, and meditation, integrating many different threads of Hindu philosophy.
The term Agamas literally means tradition. The Agamas are a collection of scriptures of several Hindu devotional schools. The Agama texts describe cosmology, epistemology, and philosophical doctrines, precepts on meditation and practices, four kinds of yoga, mantras, temple construction, deity worship and ways to attain six fold desires. Each Agama consists of four parts viz. Jnana pada (spiritual knowledge of reality and liberation), Yoga pada (Physical and mental discipline), Kriya pada (Rules for rituals, construction of temples (Mandir); design principles for sculpting, carving, and consecration of idols of deities for worship in temples and for different forms of initiations or diksha) and Charya pada (lays down rules of conduct, of worship (puja), observances of religious rites, rituals, festivals and prayaschittas). The three main branches of Agama texts are those of Shaivism (Shiva), Vaishnavism (Vishnu), and Shaktism (Devi).
The Scholars have explored six ideologies inherent in Vedas. These are Shankara’s Advaita, Ramanuja’s Vashishtadvaita, Madhva’s Dvaita, Vallabh’s Shuddha davit, Nimbark’s Dvaita-advait and Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s Achint bhedabhed. (Articles of these are already published in this website under the category of Philosophy)
Bharata’s Natya sastra, Vyakarana Sastra, Vimana sastra, yantra sastra, Mantra sastra, manas-sastra, and so on, drama, metalurgy, health sciences, and a host of other subjects. Commentaries (bhashya, tika, tippani, vartika) –this is an enormous fund of literature in itself.
The Path of Moksha - Ashtavakra Gita
In Bhagavad Gita, Shree Krishna made discourse on four paths of salvation to Arjuna during Mahabharata. These four paths of spiritual realization are based on the premise that people are born with different temperaments and tendencies. The four paths are knowledge (jnana yoga), the path of devotion (bhakti yoga), the path of action (karma yoga), and the path of meditation (raja yoga).
Sufi-saints have also defined four stages viz. shariyat, tarifat, marifat and hakikat. Shariyat means following methods-preparations, rules-regulations, system-procedures, self-control, remedies etc. Tarifat means ego is lost, performance is stopped. Marifat means experience of consciousness but duality remains. Hakikat means only consciousness remains. Liberated person experiences consciousness everywhere. Hence, he neither criticise, nor praise, nor excited, nor angry, nor acquire, nor reject. He lives naturally
Sri Ashtavakra says, modern amenities and instruments are invented by human being with great efforts and research. Likewise, people are making efforts such as japa, tapa, yoga, sadhana, hath yoga, mantra sadhana, worship etc. to find almighty. But almighty is inside each one. Only requirement is to clear the mind. Doer-ship or ego develops stress of expectations. Non-fulfilment of expectations causes miseries. Ego and almighty, both cannot remain together. Once “I am-ness” dropped, almighty remains. The opposites (violence-non-violence, compassion-cruelty, politeness-harshness, humility-pride etc.) appear till duality. When entire universe appears as one consciousness, opposites disappear.
Sri Ashtavakra has preferred the spiritual wisdom as a path of moksha. He explained the paths as under:
Ashtavakra Gita – Spiritual Experience of Raja Janaka
Sri Ashtavakra described Raja Janaka about various aspects of body, ego, mind, soul, almighty and liberation. Raja Janaka being highly detached from worldly desires and was competent for spiritual enlightenment, experienced instantaneously the spiritual experience.
Enlightened guru says, “अयमात्मा ब्रह्म” means jivatma is brahman (parmatma). After enlightenment, disciple says, “अहं ब्रह्मास्मि” means brahman is omnipresent and jivatma is little knower and at one place. When the difference between jivatma and parmatma disappears, the state is moksha. In moksha, liberated person becomes free, without aspiration and bondage.
Sri Ashtavakra examines the validity of his spiritual experience of Raja Janaka. Raja Janaka explains about the different aspects after attaining the spiritual experience in various chapters which are as under:
Chapter – 2: On realisation, Brahman & Jivatma:-
Chapter – 4: Enlightened Person & World:-
Enlightened person drops ego, due to this his actions are natural and without stress, without aspiring for its fruits. He treats the world as play or dream.
Chapter – 5: State of Spiritual Enlightenment:-
After attaining spiritual enlightenment, one realises that he is eternal jivatma and there is nobody else. So nothing can be renounced. Only thing, one can drop is pride of body which is biggest bondage. Dropping of it leads to moksha.
Pleasure-pain is attributes of mind, hope-despair is attributes of chit, and life-death is attributes of body. But one is pure & eternal jivatma which is only witness.
Chapter – 6: State pf Moksha:-
The person neither desires to acquire anything, nor want to renounce anything, nor have attachment, nor have detachment, nor have fondness, nor has dispassion, nor feels life, nor moksha, in that state of void and waking, only consciousness remains. Once that state is attained, all efforts such as dharna dhayan, meditation etc. becomes useless.
Chapter – 7: Role of Senses of perception:-
All restlessness is due to mind. Desires, lust, better position, need of more wealth, expectations, need for respect, need of moksha etc. are attributes of mind. All these efforts create restlessness.
As ripples and waves rises in ocean, likewise these develop in mind but die down without damaging anything in enlightened person.
Senses of perception and mind are always attracted towards sense objects and are satisfied through senses of actions. When senses of actions are not remaining, these attractions continue in subtle form which leads to re-birth.
Chapter – 12: Process for Spiritual wisdom:-
Practice and dispassion are essential for spiritual wisdom. Sri Janak says, first I restraint bodily actions, then speech actions; later mind actions. Like this, I was made available to spiritual wisdom. One should ignore bodily actions, speech actions & mind actions and become observer. All actions are carried out naturally.
Chapter – 13: Pains & Actions:
Chapter – 14: Enlightened Person & Future Actions:
Chapter – 19: Experience of Jivatma:-
Chapter – 20: Concept of Advaita:
Raja Janaka has explained the spiritual experience of realisation of Brahaman, Jivatma & Universe in the following chapters and verses (the respective verses and chapters in Sanskrit are mentioned in the end):
Ashtavakra Gita – the Body, Mind & Jivatma
All dies, king dies, pauper dies, intelligent dies, ignorant dies, enlightened persons like Gautam Buddha died, even Shree Rama & Shree Krishna died. But jivatma is eternal. Body made of three attributes (sattva, rajas and tamas) takes birth or dies or experiences childhood, youth and old age.
Modern science says, matter and energy is not destructible but can be transformed. Likewise, spirituality also says, jivatma is not destructible and eternal.
Sri Ashtavakra described Raja Janaka about various aspects of body, ego, mind, soul, almighty and liberation in various chapters. He described that the disinterest or indifference towards desires and living in sacrificial way arises peace. One should live in curbed (limited) way. One should drop doer-ship and let the things happen in natural way. Instead of doer, one becomes seer. It will bring peace and eligibility for spiritual wisdom.
The various aspects are as under:
Brahman (Parmatma, Almighty or God) & Jivatma (Soul, Self):
Desires & Karma (actions, activities):
Bondage and Attachment:
Detachment & Dispassion (वैराग्य):
Sri Ashtavakra explained the above aspects in the following chapters and verses (the respective verses and chapters in Sanskrit are mentioned in the end):
Purva or Karma Mimansa Darshan (Chapters 12, verses 2731) is biggest darshan and was founded by Rishi Jamini in 4th century BC. Karma Mimansa has several sub-schools viz. Prabhakara sub-school & Bhatta sub-school (of 7th century BC).
Karma Mimansa refers to examination of Vedic texts and stressed on Karmakanda (rituals) based on Vedas. It held that Vedas are eternal, authorless, and dharma means rituals & social duties. Ethics for this life and efficacious action for heaven (स्वर्ग) cannot be derived from sense-perception, and can only be derived from experience, reflection and understanding of past teachings.
The ultimate aim of Karma Mimansa is achieving heaven. Deeds (कर्म) without aspiring for fruits and spiritual knowledge are means to get Heaven. By mastering the above two means, past deeds extinguish and man become liberated.
Karma Mimansa has three parts viz. tools of knowledge (Perception, Inference, Analogy & Comparison, word, Postulation and non-perception), Spiritualism and Duty decider.
Yajna (also called karma) are done for the achievement of a fruit like 'Heaven. Yajnas are performed on daily, fortnightly, monthly, annually and once in life time. Agnihotra is the homa done thrice a day. Yajna means worshipping, sacrifice & offering. The main constituents of Yajna are desire of doer (bhāvana), learning (svādhyāya), rites involved (karma), offerings i.e. Yaga-sacrifice, Dana-giving & Homa-offerings in fire (tyāga), devata and the results (phala). The ingredients used in a yajna are called dravya. Samskāra is a rite that involves mantra. There are forty samskāras or rites performed in one’s lifetime.
The three parts of Karma Mimansa as under:
The main features of Karma Mimansa:
Samkhya Darshan (451 Sutras and 527 including sub-verses, 6 chapters) was founded by Rishi Kapil around the 6th - 7th century BC. Samkhya Darshan, one of the six Hindu Philosophies deliberates on Prakriti, Jivatma and moksha. Samkhya means accurate, proper, and correct. Samkhya believes in dwatvad (द्वेतवाद) i.e. the creation is by Prakriti and Jivatma. The right knowledge (vivek) differentiates Prakriti (nature) and Jivatma (soul, prusha).
Maherishi Kapil sometimes called as atheist. But many verses pronounce that Parmatma (Brahman, Supreme consciousness) is ultimate cause which proves him as theist.
Samkhya Darshan has main principle of “Satkaryavad” (सत्कार्यवाद) means universe is created for some reason by original power. Satkaryavad has two forms viz. “Parinamvad” (परिणामवाद) and “Vivartvad” (विवर्तवाद). Parinamvad means actual modification happens into substance. Vivartvad means actual modification does not happen but only appears. As per Samkhya Darshan, following are the key principles:
Patanjali Yoga Darshan –The Practical steps to Bliss & Powers
Yoga Darshan (194 Sutras, 4 chapters) was founded by Rishi Patanjali between the 4th century BC - 2th century AD. Yoga Darshan, one of the six Hindu Philosophies is practical training to attain moksha.
Yoga means joining or union. Yoga Shastra has four areas viz. universe, reason of creation of universe, liberation (moksha) and means of attaining liberation. These four areas are deeply investigated as under:
To get rid of miseries and to attain Kaivalya, eight limbs or parts of yoga are prescribed by rishi Patanjali. The Practice of eight limbs of Yoga leads to destruction of impurity which ultimately leads to light of self-awareness. In the light of self-awareness, Jivatma appears different from mind, buddhi, ego and senses.
The eight parts (of the self-discipline of Yoga) are Yama (Self-restraints, यम), Niyama (observances of rules, नियम), Asana (posture, आसन), Pranayama (regulation of breath, प्राणायाम), Pratyhara (abstraction, प्रत्याहार), Dharna (concentration, धारणा), Dhyana (meditation, ध्यान), Samadhi (trance, समाधि). (यमनियमासनप्राणायामप्रत्याहारधारणाध्यानसमाधयोऽष्टावअङ्गानि 2/29). Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama and Pratyhara are external limbs and Dharna, Dhyana & Samadhi are internal limb. Dharna, Dhyana & Samadhi is external limb of Asamprajaatah Samadhi (seedless Samadhi). The details are as under:
The detailed explanations, chapter wise and verse-wise are as under:
Vedanta Darshan or Brahma Sutra – key of Upanishads
Vedanta means "end of the Vedas". Vedanta or utter Mimansa, one of six Hindu Darshans, has four Chapters and 555 verses. Badarayana (5th BC) synthesized and systematized the various philosophies contained in the Upanishads in the Brahma Sutras, also called the Vedanta.
Inquisitiveness, diseases or miseries experienced in life, inspire people to inquire about Brahman (Almighty, Iswar, Parmatama or cosmic consciousness) who is eternal, blissful, omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent. The Upanishads gave various interpretations on Brahman, Jivatma, Prakriti and Moksha. Vedanta probed various interpretations given in Upanishads and conceptualized the knowledge of Brahman and other aspects.
The salient features of Vedanta are as under;
Based on Vedanta Darshan, different schools of Vedanta developed.
The prominent Vedanta schools are following:
The chapter-wise detailed explanations are attempted as under (Verse wise):